326 research outputs found

    POLYPHENOLS FROM RED WINE MODULATE IMMUNE RESPONSIVENESS: BIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE.

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    Many studies have been conducted on the effects of red wine polyphenols on certain diseases, primarily, coronary heart disease (CHD) and, in this respect, evidence has been demonstrated that intake of red wine is associated with a reduction of CHD symptomatology. In this framework, the purpose of this review is to illustrate the effects of polyphenols on immune cells from human healthy peripheral blood. Data will show that polyphenols are able to stimulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. In particular, the release of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-, and IL-10 as well as immunoglobulins may be important for host protection in different immune related disorders. Another important aspect pointed out in this review is the release of nitric oxide (NO) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), stimulated by red wine polyphenols despite the fact that the majority of studies have reported NO production only by endothelial cells. Release of NO from PBMC may play an important role in cardiovascular disease, because it is known that this molecule acts as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. On the other hand, NO exerts a protective role against infectious organisms. Finally, some molecular cytoplasmatic pathways elicited by polyphenols able to regulate certain immune responses will also be discussed. In particular, it seems that p38, a molecule belonging to the MAPK family, is involved in the release of IFN- and, therefore, in NO production. All these data confirm the beneficial effects of polyphenols in some chronic diseases

    Low Grade Inflammation as a Common Pathogenetic Denominator in Age-Related Diseases: Novel Drug Targets for Anti-Ageing Strategies and Successful Ageing Achievement

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    Nowadays, people are living much longer than they used to do, however they are not free from ageing. Ageing, an inexorable intrinsic process that affects all cells, tissues, organs and individuals, is a post-maturational process that, due to a diminished homeostasis and increased organism frailty, causes a reduction of the response to environmental stimuli and, in general, is associated to an increased predisposition to illness and death. However, the high incidence of death due to infectious, cardiovascular and cancer diseases underlies a common feature in these pathologies that is represented by dysregulation of both instructive and innate immunity. Several studies show that a low-grade systemic inflammation characterizes ageing and that inflammatory markers are significant predictors of mortality in old humans. This pro-inflammatory status of the elderly underlies biological mechanisms responsible for physical function decline and agerelated diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis are initiated or worsened by systemic inflammation. Understanding of the ageing process should have a prominent role in new strategies for extending the health old population. Accordingly, as extensively discussed in the review and in the accompanying related papers, investigating ageing pathophysiology, particularly disentangling agerelated low grade inflammation, is likely to provide important clues about how to develop drugs that can slow or delay ageing

    Low Grade Inflammation as a Common Pathogenetic Denominator in Age-Related Diseases: Novel Drug Targets for Anti-Ageing Strategies and Successful Ageing Achievement

    Get PDF
    Nowadays, people are living much longer than they used to do, however they are not free from ageing. Ageing, an inexorable intrinsic process that affects all cells, tissues, organs and individuals, is a post-maturational process that, due to a diminished homeostasis and increased organism frailty, causes a reduction of the response to environmental stimuli and, in general, is associated to an increased predisposition to illness and death. However, the high incidence of death due to infectious, cardiovascular and cancer diseases underlies a common feature in these pathologies that is represented by dysregulation of both instructive and innate immunity. Several studies show that a low-grade systemic inflammation characterizes ageing and that inflammatory markers are significant predictors of mortality in old humans. This pro-inflammatory status of the elderly underlies biological mechanisms responsible for physical function decline and agerelated diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis are initiated or worsened by systemic inflammation. Understanding of the ageing process should have a prominent role in new strategies for extending the health old population. Accordingly, as extensively discussed in the review and in the accompanying related papers, investigating ageing pathophysiology, particularly disentangling agerelated low grade inflammation, is likely to provide important clues about how to develop drugs that can slow or delay ageing

    Molecular and cellular substrates for the Friedreich Ataxia. significance of contactin expression and of antioxidant administration

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    In this study, the neural phenotype is explored in rodent models of the spinocerebellar disorder known as the Friedreich Ataxia (FA), which results from mutations within the gene encoding the Frataxin mitochondrial protein. For this, the M12 line, bearing a targeted mutation, which disrupts the Frataxin gene exon 4 was used, together with the M02 line, which, in addition, is hemizygous for the human Frataxin gene mutation (Pook transgene), implying the occurrence of 82–190 GAA repeats within its first intron. The mutant mice phenotype was compared to the one of wild type littermates in regions undergoing differential profiles of neurogenesis, including the cerebellar cortex and the spinal cord by using neuronal (ÎČ-tubulin) and glial (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein) markers as well as the Contactin 1 axonal glycoprotein, involved in neurite growth control. Morphological/morphometric analyses revealed that while in Frataxin mutant mice the neuronal phenotype was significantly counteracted, a glial upregulation occurred at the same time. Furthermore, Contactin 1 downregulation suggested that changes in the underlying gene contributed to the disorder pathogenesis. Therefore, the FA phenotype implies an alteration of the developmental profile of neuronal and glial precursors. Finally, epigallocatechin gallate polyphenol administration counteracted the disorder, indicating protective effects of antioxidant administration

    Administration of a Synbiotic to Free-Living Elderly and Evaluation of Serum Cytokines. A Pilot Study

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    Ten free-living elderly were administered with a synbiotic [fermented milk containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus Gorbach and Goldin (LGG)] and oligofructose as a prebiotic for one month. Serum cytokines were evaluated before (T0) and after (T1) synbiotic administration. At T0, values of Interleukin (IL)-12, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)- were lower than normal controls, with the exception of IL-8, thus confirming previous results on the impairment of both innate and adaptive responses in elderly. At T1, the synbiotic was able to significantly increase, depressed values of IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 with a trend to a modest increase for the restant cytokines. In conclusion, the synbiotic used in this study seems to be very beneficial to elderly for its capacity to maintain the immune homeostasis, even if an increase in dosage and prolongation of administration time are required for a better modulation of the aged adaptive immune response

    The role of male hypogonadism, aging, and chronic diseases in characterizing adult and elderly men with erectile dysfunction: a cross-sectional study

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    BackgroundErectile function depends on a complex interaction between demographic, metabolic, vascular, hormonal, and psychological factors that trigger erectile dysfunction (ED). In the present study we carried out a cross-sectional study assessing the impact of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs), male hypogonadism, and demographic factors in characterizing men with ED. Four hundred thirty-three consecutive outpatients with ED were extracted from the electronic database from January 2017 to December 2019. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) 5 score was used to diagnose ED and stratify its severity, standardized values of serum testosterone (10.5 nM/L) and luteinizing hormone (LH 9.4 IU/L) to diagnose and classify male hypogonadism and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) to weigh the role of each NCD on ED. ResultsForty-six percent of participants were eugonadal (EuG), 13% had organic hypogonadism (OrH), and the remaining 41% had functional hypogonadism (FuH). Hypogonadal men had a significantly lower IIEF 5 score (p < .0001) than EuG. FuH had a higher CCI than OrH and EuG (all p < .0001). In a multivariable model, only free T (FT) and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) showed a direct correlation with the IIEF 5 score (all p < .0001). Age and CCI had an inverse correlation with IIEF 5 score (all p < .0001).ConclusionSerum FT, SHBG, and CCI are the leading determinants of ED severity. Besides overt hypogonadism, a relevant burden of severe NTCDs in middle-aged or older adults features the patient's characteristics who will suffer from severe ED. Appropriate clinical approaches and, when necessary, treatments are required in these clusters of patients

    The influence of diet on anti‑cancer immune responsiveness

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    Immunotherapy has matured into standard treatment for several cancers, but much remains to be done to extend the reach of its effectiveness particularly to cancers that are resistant within each indication. This review proposes that nutrition can affect and potentially enhance the immune response against cancer. The general mechanisms that link nutritional principles to immune function and may influence the effectiveness of anticancer immunotherapy are examined. This represents also the premise for a research project aimed at identifying the best diet for immunotherapy enhancement against tumours (D.I.E.T project). Particular attention is turned to the gut microbiota and the impact of its composition on the immune system. Also, the dietary patterns effecting immune function are discussed including the value of adhering to a healthy diets such as the Mediterranean, Veg, Japanese, or a Microbiota-regulating diet, the very low ketogenic diet, which have been demonstrated to lower the risk of developing several cancers and reduce the mortality associated with them. Finally, supplements, as omega-3 and polyphenols, are discussed as potential approaches that could benefit healthy dietary and lifestyle habits in the context of immunotherapy

    Mechanisms of immunosenescence

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    On April 7,8, 2009 a Symposium entitled "Pathophysiology of Successful and Unsuccessful Ageing" took place in Palermo, Italy. Here, the lectures of G. Pawelec, D. Dunn-Walters and. G. Colonna-Romano on T and B immunosenescence are summarized. In the elderly, many alterations of both innate and acquired immunity have been described. Alterations to the immune system in the older person are generally viewed as a deterioration of immunity, leading to the use of the catch-all term immunosenescence. Indeed, many immunological parameters are often markedly different in elderly compared to young people, and some, mostly circumstantial, evidence suggests that retained function of both innate and acquired immunity in the elderly is correlated with health status. What is often not clear from studies is how far immune dysfunction is a cause or an effect. A better understanding of immunosenescence and mechanisms responsible for proven deleterious changes is needed to maintain a healthy state in later life and to design possible therapeutic interventions

    A Plant Kavalactone Desmethoxyyangonin PreventsInflammation and Fulminant Hepatitis in Mice

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    Alpinia pricei Hayata is a Formosan plant which has been popularly used as nutraceutical or folk medicine for inflammation and various disorders. An active compound of the plant rhizomes, desmethoxyyangonin (DMY), was identified in this study for its novel effect against endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammation in murine macrophages and LPS/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced fulminant hepatitis in mice. DMY was observed to significantly inhibit proliferation and activation of T cells ex vivo and the activity of several pro-inflammatory mediators in vitro. DMY also protected LPS/D-GalN−induced acute hepatic damages in mice through inhibiting aminotransferases activities and infiltrations of inflammatory macrophages, neutrophils and pathogenic T cells into the liver tissues. In addition, pretreatment with DMY significantly improved the survival rate of LPS/D-GalN−treated mice to 90% (9/10), compared to LPS/D-GalN−treated group (40%, 4/10). UPLC/MS platform-based comparative metabolomics approach was used to explore the serum metabolic profile in fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) mice with or without the DMY pretreatment. The results showed that LPS/D-GalN−induced hepatic damage is likely through perturbing amino acid metabolism, which leads to decreased pyruvate formation via catalysis of aminotransferases, and DMY treatment can prevent to a certain degree of these alterations in metabolic network in mouse caused by LPS/D-GalN. Mechanistic investigation demonstrated that DMY protects LPS or LPS/D-GalN−induced damages in cell or liver tissues mainly through de-regulating IKK/NFÎșB and Jak2/STAT3 signaling pathways. This report provides evidence-based knowledge to support the rationale for the use of A. pricei root extract in anti-inflammation and also its new function as hepatoprotetive agent against fulminant hepatitis

    Microbial Translocation Is Associated with Increased Monocyte Activation and Dementia in AIDS Patients

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    Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). To determine whether high LPS levels are associated with increased monocyte activation and HAD, we obtained peripheral blood samples from AIDS patients and examined plasma LPS by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, peripheral blood monocytes by FACS, and soluble markers of monocyte activation by ELISA. Purified monocytes were isolated by FACS sorting, and HIV DNA and RNA levels were quantified by real time PCR. Circulating monocytes expressed high levels of the activation markers CD69 and HLA-DR, and harbored low levels of HIV compared to CD4+ T-cells. High plasma LPS levels were associated with increased plasma sCD14 and LPS-binding protein (LBP) levels, and low endotoxin core antibody levels. LPS levels were higher in HAD patients compared to control groups, and were associated with HAD independently of plasma viral load and CD4 counts. LPS levels were higher in AIDS patients using intravenous heroin and/or ethanol, or with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection, compared to control groups. These results suggest a role for elevated LPS levels in driving monocyte activation in AIDS, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of HAD, and provide evidence that cofactors linked to substance abuse and HCV co-infection influence these processes
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