186 research outputs found

    Brain Tissue-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in Alzheimer's Disease Display Altered Key Protein Levels Including Cell Type-Specific Markers

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    Background: Brain tissue-derived extracellular vesicles (bdEVs) play neurodegenerative and protective roles, including in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Extracellular vesicles (EVs) may also leave the brain to betray the state of the CNS in the periphery. Only a few studies have profiled the proteome of bdEVs and source brain tissue. Additionally, studies focusing on bdEV cell type-specific surface markers are rare. Objective: We aimed to reveal the pathological mechanisms inside the brain by profiling the tissue and bdEV proteomes in AD patients. In addition, to indicate targets for capturing and molecular profiling of bdEVs in the periphery, CNS cell-specific markers were profiled on the intact bdEV surface. Methods: bdEVs were separated and followed by EV counting and sizing. Brain tissue and bdEVs from age-matched AD patients and controls were then proteomically profiled. Total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and antioxidant peroxiredoxins (PRDX) 1 and 6 were measured by immunoassay in an independent bdEV separation. Neuron, microglia, astrocyte, and endothelia markers were detected on intact EVs by multiplexed ELISA. Results: Overall, concentration of recovered bdEVs was not affected by AD. Proteome differences between AD and control were more pronounced for bdEVs than for brain tissue. Levels of t-tau, p-tau, PRDX1, and PRDX6 were significantly elevated in AD bdEVs compared with controls. Release of certain cell-specific bdEV markers was increased in AD. Conclusion: Several bdEV proteins are involved in AD mechanisms and may be used for disease monitoring. The identified CNS cell markers may be useful tools for peripheral bdEV capture

    Genome-wide structural variant analysis identifies risk loci for non-Alzheimer's dementias

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    We characterized the role of structural variants, a largely unexplored type of genetic variation, in two non-Alzheimer's dementias, namely Lewy body dementia (LBD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD)/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To do this, we applied an advanced structural variant calling pipeline (GATK-SV) to short-read whole-genome sequence data from 5,213 European-ancestry cases and 4,132 controls. We discovered, replicated, and validated a deletion in TPCN1 as a novel risk locus for LBD and detected the known structural variants at the C9orf72 and MAPT loci as associated with FTD/ALS. We also identified rare pathogenic structural variants in both LBD and FTD/ALS. Finally, we assembled a catalog of structural variants that can be mined for new insights into the pathogenesis of these understudied forms of dementia

    The impact of surgical delay on resectability of colorectal cancer: An international prospective cohort study

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    AimThe SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has provided a unique opportunity to explore the impact of surgical delays on cancer resectability. This study aimed to compare resectability for colorectal cancer patients undergoing delayed versus non-delayed surgery.MethodsThis was an international prospective cohort study of consecutive colorectal cancer patients with a decision for curative surgery (January-April 2020). Surgical delay was defined as an operation taking place more than 4 weeks after treatment decision, in a patient who did not receive neoadjuvant therapy. A subgroup analysis explored the effects of delay in elective patients only. The impact of longer delays was explored in a sensitivity analysis. The primary outcome was complete resection, defined as curative resection with an R0 margin.ResultsOverall, 5453 patients from 304 hospitals in 47 countries were included, of whom 6.6% (358/5453) did not receive their planned operation. Of the 4304 operated patients without neoadjuvant therapy, 40.5% (1744/4304) were delayed beyond 4 weeks. Delayed patients were more likely to be older, men, more comorbid, have higher body mass index and have rectal cancer and early stage disease. Delayed patients had higher unadjusted rates of complete resection (93.7% vs. 91.9%, P = 0.032) and lower rates of emergency surgery (4.5% vs. 22.5%, P ConclusionOne in 15 colorectal cancer patients did not receive their planned operation during the first wave of COVID-19. Surgical delay did not appear to compromise resectability, raising the hypothesis that any reduction in long-term survival attributable to delays is likely to be due to micro-metastatic disease

    Genetic evaluation of dementia with Lewy bodies implicates distinct disease subgroups

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    The APOE locus is strongly associated with risk for developing Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. In particular, the role of the APOE Ï”4 allele as a putative driver of α-synuclein pathology is a topic of intense debate. Here, we performed a comprehensive evaluation in 2466 dementia with Lewy bodies cases versus 2928 neurologically healthy, aged controls. Using an APOE-stratified genome-wide association study approach, we found that GBA is associated with risk for dementia with Lewy bodies in patients without APOE Ï”4 (P = 6.58 × 10-9, OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.25-5.17), but not with dementia with Lewy bodies with APOE Ï”4 (P = 0.034, OR = 1.87, 95%, 95% CI = 1.05-3.37). We then divided 495 neuropathologically examined dementia with Lewy bodies cases into three groups based on the extent of concomitant Alzheimer's disease co-pathology: Pure dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 88), dementia with Lewy bodies with intermediate Alzheimer's disease co-pathology (n = 66) and dementia with Lewy bodies with high Alzheimer's disease co-pathology (n = 341). In each group, we tested the association of the APOE Ï”4 against the 2928 neurologically healthy controls. Our examination found that APOE Ï”4 was associated with dementia with Lewy bodies + Alzheimer's disease (P = 1.29 × 10-32, OR = 4.25, 95% CI = 3.35-5.39) and dementia with Lewy bodies + intermediate Alzheimer's disease (P = 0.0011, OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.40-3.83), but not with pure dementia with Lewy bodies (P = 0.31, OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.43-1.30). In conclusion, although deep clinical data were not available for these samples, our findings do not support the notion that APOE Ï”4 is an independent driver of α-synuclein pathology in pure dementia with Lewy bodies, but rather implicate GBA as the main risk gene for the pure dementia with Lewy bodies subgroup

    Epithelial-immune cell interplay in primary Sjogren syndrome salivary gland pathogenesis

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    In primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS), the function of the salivary glands is often considerably reduced. Multiple innate immune pathways are likely dysregulated in the salivary gland epithelium in pSS, including the nuclear factor-kappa B pathway, the inflammasome and interferon signalling. The ductal cells of the salivary gland in pSS are characteristically surrounded by a CD4(+) T cell-rich and B cell-rich infiltrate, implying a degree of communication between epithelial cells and immune cells. B cell infiltrates within the ducts can initiate the development of lymphoepithelial lesions, including basal ductal cell hyperplasia. Vice versa, the epithelium provides chronic activation signals to the glandular B cell fraction. This continuous stimulation might ultimately drive the development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. This Review discusses changes in the cells of the salivary gland epithelium in pSS (including acinar, ductal and progenitor cells), and the proposed interplay of these cells with environmental stimuli and the immune system. Current therapeutic options are insufficient to address both lymphocytic infiltration and salivary gland dysfunction. Successful rescue of salivary gland function in pSS will probably demand a multimodal therapeutic approach and an appreciation of the complicity of the salivary gland epithelium in the development of pSS. Salivary gland dysfunction is an important characteristic of primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS). In this Review, the authors discuss various epithelial abnormalities in pSS and the mechanisms by which epithelial cell-immune cell interactions contribute to disease development and progression

    Genome sequencing analysis identifies new loci associated with Lewy body dementia and provides insights into its genetic architecture

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    The genetic basis of Lewy body dementia (LBD) is not well understood. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing in large cohorts of LBD cases and neurologically healthy controls to study the genetic architecture of this understudied form of dementia, and to generate a resource for the scientific community. Genome-wide association analysis identified five independent risk loci, whereas genome-wide gene-aggregation tests implicated mutations in the gene GBA. Genetic risk scores demonstrate that LBD shares risk profiles and pathways with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, providing a deeper molecular understanding of the complex genetic architecture of this age-related neurodegenerative condition

    Delayed colorectal cancer care during covid-19 pandemic (decor-19). Global perspective from an international survey