806 research outputs found

    Coupling Between Thermal Oscillations in the Surface of a Micro-Cylinder and Vortex Shedding

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    his article studies the coupling between prescribed thermal oscillations in the surface of a micro-cylinder and vortex shedding. We deal with the unsteady, laminar, compressible flow regime where the aerodynamics forces have a periodic behavior. It is shown that appropriate spatial and time-dependent temperature oscillations on the surface of the micro-cylinder create a resonance that controls the amplitude and frequency of both lift and drag coefficients. In practice, what we study is a mechanism to modulate the amplitude and frequency of mechanical loads of aerodynamics origin in a micro-structure by using surface temperature fluctuations as the control parameter

    Polymorphic evolution sequence and evolutionary branching

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    We are interested in the study of models describing the evolution of a polymorphic population with mutation and selection in the specific scales of the biological framework of adaptive dynamics. The population size is assumed to be large and the mutation rate small. We prove that under a good combination of these two scales, the population process is approximated in the long time scale of mutations by a Markov pure jump process describing the successive trait equilibria of the population. This process, which generalizes the so-called trait substitution sequence, is called polymorphic evolution sequence. Then we introduce a scaling of the size of mutations and we study the polymorphic evolution sequence in the limit of small mutations. From this study in the neighborhood of evolutionary singularities, we obtain a full mathematical justification of a heuristic criterion for the phenomenon of evolutionary branching. To this end we finely analyze the asymptotic behavior of 3-dimensional competitive Lotka-Volterra systems

    Topological aspects of geometrical signatures of phase transitions

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    Certain geometric properties of submanifolds of configuration space are numerically investigated for classical lattice phi^4 models in one and two dimensions. Peculiar behaviors of the computed geometric quantities are found only in the two-dimensional case, when a phase transition is present. The observed phenomenology strongly supports, though in an indirect way, a recently proposed topological conjecture about a topology change of the configuration space submanifolds as counterpart of a phase transition.Comment: REVTEX file, 4 pages, 5 figure

    Exchange Interaction in Binuclear Complexes with Rare Earth and Copper Ions: A Many-Body Model Study

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    We have used a many-body model Hamiltonian to study the nature of the magnetic ground state of hetero-binuclear complexes involving rare-earth and copper ions. We have taken into account all diagonal repulsions involving the rare-earth 4f and 5d orbitals and the copper 3d orbital. Besides, we have included direct exchange interaction, crystal field splitting of the rare-earth atomic levels and spin-orbit interaction in the 4f orbitals. We have identified the inter-orbital 4f4f repulsion, Uff_{ff} and crystal field parameter, Δf\Delta_f as the key parameters involved in controlling the type of exchange interaction between the rare earth 4f4f and copper 3d spins. We have explored the nature of the ground state in the parameter space of Uff_{ff}, Δf\Delta_f, spin-orbit interaction strength λ\lambda and the 4f4f filling nf_f. We find that these systems show low-spin or high-spin ground state depending on the filling of the 4f4f levels of the rare-earth ion and ground state spin is critically dependent on Uff_{ff} and Δf\Delta_f. In case of half-filling (Gd(III)) we find a reentrant low-spin state as Uff_{ff} is increased, for small values of Δf\Delta_f, which explains the recently reported apparent anomalous anti-ferromagnetic behaviour of Gd(III)-radical complexes. By varying Uff_{ff} we also observe a switch over in the ground state spin for other fillings . We have introduced a spin-orbit coupling scheme which goes beyond L-S or j-j coupling scheme and we find that spin-orbit coupling does not significantly alter the basic picture.Comment: 22 pages, 11 ps figure

    Multi-Phonon γ\gamma-Vibrational Bands and the Triaxial Projected Shell Model

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    We present a fully quantum-mechanical, microscopic, unified treatment of ground-state band and multi-phonon γ\gamma-vibrational bands using shell model diagonalization with the triaxial projected shell model. The results agree very well with data on the g- and γ\gamma-band spectra in 156170^{156-170}Er, as well as with recently measured 4+4^+ 2-phonon γ\gamma-bandhead energies in 166^{166}Er and 168^{168}Er. Multi-phonon γ\gamma-excitation energies are predicted.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, submitted to Phys. Lett.

    Ground and excited states Gamow-Teller strength distributions of iron isotopes and associated capture rates for core-collapse simulations

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    This paper reports on the microscopic calculation of ground and excited states Gamow-Teller (GT) strength distributions, both in the electron capture and electron decay direction, for 54,55,56^{54,55,56}Fe. The associated electron and positron capture rates for these isotopes of iron are also calculated in stellar matter. These calculations were recently introduced and this paper is a follow-up which discusses in detail the GT strength distributions and stellar capture rates of key iron isotopes. The calculations are performed within the framework of the proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory. The pn-QRPA theory allows a microscopic \textit{state-by-state} calculation of GT strength functions and stellar capture rates which greatly increases the reliability of the results. For the first time experimental deformation of nuclei are taken into account. In the core of massive stars isotopes of iron, 54,55,56^{54,55,56}Fe, are considered to be key players in decreasing the electron-to-baryon ratio (YeY_{e}) mainly via electron capture on these nuclide. The structure of the presupernova star is altered both by the changes in YeY_{e} and the entropy of the core material. Results are encouraging and are compared against measurements (where possible) and other calculations. The calculated electron capture rates are in overall good agreement with the shell model results. During the presupernova evolution of massive stars, from oxygen shell burning stages till around end of convective core silicon burning, the calculated electron capture rates on 54^{54}Fe are around three times bigger than the corresponding shell model rates. The calculated positron capture rates, however, are suppressed by two to five orders of magnitude.Comment: 18 pages, 12 figures, 10 table

    Suppressing the μ\mu and neutrino masses by a superconformal force

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    The idea of Nelson and Strassler to obtain a power law suppression of parameters by a superconformal force is applied to understand the smallness of the μ\mu parameter and neutrino masses in R-parity violating supersymmetric standard models. We find that the low-energy sector should contain at least another pair of Higgs doublets, and that a suppression of \lsim O(10^{-13}) for the μ\mu parameter and neutrino masses can be achieved generically. The superpotential of the low-energy sector happens to possess an anomaly-free discrete R-symmetry, either R3R_3 or R6R_6, which naturally suppresses certain lepton-flavor violating processes, the neutrinoless double beta decays and also the electron electric dipole moment. We expect that the escape energy of the superconformal sector is \lsim O(10) TeV so that this sector will be observable at LHC. Our models can accommodate to a large mixing among neutrinos and give the same upper bound of the lightest Higgs mass as the minimal supersymmetric standard model.Comment: 24 page

    Using MapMyFitness to place physical activity into neighborhood context

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    It is difficult to obtain detailed information on the context of physical activity at large geographic scales, such as the entire United States, as well as over long periods of time, such as over years. MapMyFitness is a suite of interactive tools for individuals to track theirworkouts online or using global positioning system in their phones or other wireless trackers. This method article discusses the use of physical activity data tracked using MapMyFitness to examine patterns over space and time. An overview of MapMyFitness, including data tracked, user information, and geographic scope, is explored. We illustrate the utility of MapMyFitness data using tracked physical activity by users in Winston-Salem, NC, USA between 2006 and 2013. Types of physical activities tracked are described, as well as the percent of activities occurring in parks. Strengths of MapMyFitness data include objective data collection, low participant burden, extensive geographic scale, and longitudinal series. Limitations include generalizability, behavioral change as the result of technology use, and potential ethical considerations. MapMyFitness is a powerful tool to investigate patterns of physical activity across large geographic and temporal scales

    Disorder Induced Phase Transition in a Random Quantum Antiferromagnet

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    A two-dimensional Heisenberg model with random antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor exchange is studied using quantum Monte Carlo techniques. As the strength of the randomness is increased, the system undergoes a transition from an antiferromagnetically ordered ground state to a gapless disordered state. The finite-size scaling of the staggered structure factor and susceptibility is consistent with a dynamic exponent z=2z = 2.Comment: Revtex 3.0, 10 pages + 5 postscript figures available upon request, UCSBTH-94-1
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