2,915 research outputs found

    Impact of inter-correlated initial binary parameters on double black hole and neutron star mergers

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    The distributions of the initial main-sequence binary parameters are one of the key ingredients in obtaining evolutionary predictions for compact binary (BH-BH / BH-NS / NS-NS) merger rates. Until now, such calculations were done under the assumption that initial binary parameter distributions were independent. Here, we implement empirically derived inter-correlated distributions of initial binary parameters primary mass (M1), mass ratio (q), orbital period (P), and eccentricity (e). Unexpectedly, the introduction of inter-correlated initial binary parameters leads to only a small decrease in the predicted merger rates by a factor of 2 - 3 relative to the previously used non-correlated initial distributions. The formation of compact object mergers in the isolated classical binary evolution favors initial binaries with stars of comparable masses (q = 0.5 - 1) at intermediate orbital periods (log P (days) = 2 - 4). New distributions slightly shift the mass ratios towards smaller values with respect to the previously used flat q distribution, which is the dominant effect decreasing the rates. New orbital periods only negligibly increase the number of progenitors. Additionally, we discuss the uncertainty of merger rate predictions associated with possible variations of the massive-star initial mass function (IMF). We argue that evolutionary calculations should be normalized to a star formation rate (SFR) that is obtained from the observed amount of UV light at wavelength 1500{\AA} (SFR indicator). In this case, contrary to recent reports, the uncertainty of the IMF does not affect the rates by more than a factor of 2. Any change to the IMF slope for massive stars requires a change of SFR in a way that counteracts the impact of IMF variations on the merger rates. In contrast, we suggest that the uncertainty in cosmic SFR at low metallicity can be a significant factor at play.Comment: accepted for publication in A&

    Determination of local material properties of OSB sample by coupling advanced imaging techniques and morphology-based FEM simulation

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    This is the publisher’s final pdf. The published article is copyrighted by Walter de Gruyter & Co. and can be found at: http://www.degruyter.com/.The goal was to determine local mechanical properties inside of oriented strand board (OSB) based on a realistic morphology-based finite element (FE) model and data acquired from a physical test performed on the same material. The spatial information and local grayscale intensity from CT-scans obtained from small OSB sample was transformed into a 2D regular morphology-based FE mesh with corresponding material properties. The model was then used to simulate the actual compression test performed on the specimen using simplified boundary conditions. The simulated strain fields from the model were compared with the actual strain field measured on the specimen surface during the compression test by means of a full-field optical method, named digital image correlation (DIC). Finally, the original set of material properties was adjusted by an iterative procedure to minimize the difference between the simulated and the measured strain data. The results show that the developed procedure is useful to find local material properties as well as for morphological modeling without the need of segmentation of the image data. The achieved results serve as a prerequisite for full 3D analyses of the complex materials

    Divalent Metal Binding Properties of the Methionyl Aminopeptidase from \u3cem\u3eEscherichia coli\u3c/em\u3e

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    The metal-binding properties of the methionyl aminopeptidase from Escherichia coli (MetAP) were investigated. Measurements of catalytic activity as a function of added Co(II) and Fe(II) revealed that maximal enzymatic activity is observed after the addition of only 1 equiv of divalent metal ion. Based on these studies, metal binding constants for the first metal binding event were found to be 0.3 ± 0.2 μM and 0.2 ± 0.2 μM for Co(II)- and Fe(II)-substituted MetAP, respectively. Binding of excess metal ions (\u3e50 equiv) resulted in the loss of ∼50% of the catalytic activity. Electronic absorption spectral titration of a 1 mM sample of MetAP with Co(II) provided a binding constant of 2.5 ± 0.5 mM for the second metal binding site. Furthermore, the electronic absorption spectra of Co(II)-loaded MetAP indicated that both metal ions reside in a pentacoordinate geometry. Consistent with the absorption data, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of [CoCo(MetAP)] also indicated that the Co(II) geometries are not highly constrained, suggesting that each Co(II) ion in MetAP resides in a pentacoordinate geometry. EPR studies on [CoCo(MetAP)] also revealed that at pH 7.5 there is no significant spin-coupling between the two Co(II) ions, though a small proportion (∼5%) of the sample exhibited detectable spin−spin interactions at pH values \u3e 9.6. EPR studies on [Fe(III)_(MetAP)] and [Fe(III)Fe(III)(MetAP)] also suggested no spin-coupling between the two metal ions. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of [Co(II)_(MetAP)] in both H2O and D2O buffer indicated that the first metal binding site contains the only active-site histidine residue, His171. Mechanistic implications of the observed binding properties of divalent metal ions to the MetAP from E. coli are discussed

    Gravitational Lensing Bound On The Average Redshift Of Gamma Ray Bursts In Models With Evolving Lenses

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    Identification of gravitationally lensed Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in the BATSE 4B catalog can be used to constrain the average redshift of the GRBs. In this paper we investigate the effect of evolving lenses on the of GRBs in different cosmological models of universe. The cosmological parameters $\Omega$ and $\Lambda$ have an effect on the of GRBs. The other factor which can change the istheevolutionofgalaxies.Weconsiderthreeevolutionarymodelofgalaxies.Inparticular,wefindthattheupperlimiton is the evolution of galaxies. We consider three evolutionary model of galaxies. In particular, we find that the upper limit on of GRBs is higher in evolving model of galaxies as compared to non-evolving models of galaxies.Comment: 23 pages,one plain LaTeX file with three postscript figures This is modified version with recent BATSE efficiency parameter and with the latest F paramete

    Inhibitors of \u3cem\u3eN\u3csup\u3eα\u3c/sup\u3e\u3c/em\u3e-acetyl-l-ornithine Deacetylase: Synthesis, Characterization and Analysis of their Inhibitory Potency

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    A series of N α-acyl (alkyl)- and N α-alkoxycarbonyl-derivatives of l- and d-ornithine were prepared, characterized, and analyzed for their potency toward the bacterial enzyme N α-acetyl-l-ornithine deacetylase (ArgE). ArgE catalyzes the conversion of N α-acetyl-l-ornithine to l-ornithine in the fifth step of the biosynthetic pathway for arginine, a necessary step for bacterial growth. Most of the compounds tested provided IC50 values in the μM range toward ArgE, indicating that they are moderately strong inhibitors. N α-chloroacetyl-l-ornithine (1g) was the best inhibitor tested toward ArgE providing an IC50 value of 85 μM while N α-trifluoroacetyl-l-ornithine (1f), N α-ethoxycarbonyl-l-ornithine (2b), and N α-acetyl-d-ornithine (1a) weakly inhibited ArgE activity providing IC50 values between 200 and 410 μM. Weak inhibitory potency toward Bacillus subtilis-168 for N α-acetyl-d-ornithine (1a) and N α-fluoro- (1f), N α-chloro- (1g), N α-dichloro- (1h), and N α-trichloroacetyl-ornithine (1i) was also observed. These data correlate well with the IC50 values determined for ArgE, suggesting that these compounds might be capable of getting across the cell membrane and that ArgE is likely the bacterial enzymatic target

    Solving Potential Scattering Equations without Partial Wave Decomposition

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    Considering two-body integral equations we show how they can be dimensionally reduced by integrating exactly over the azimuthal angle of the intermediate momentum. Numerical solution of the resulting equation is feasible without employing a partial-wave expansion. We illustrate this procedure for the Bethe-Salpeter equation for pion-nucleon scattering and give explicit details for the one-nucleon-exchange term in the potential. Finally, we show how this method can be applied to pion photoproduction from the nucleon with πN\pi N rescattering being treated so as to maintain unitarity to first order in the electromagnetic coupling. The procedure for removing the azimuthal angle dependence becomes increasingly complex as the spin of the particles involved increases.Comment: 15 pages, 4 figure

    Reducing the weak lensing noise for the gravitational wave Hubble diagram using the non-Gaussianity of the magnification distribution

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    Gravitational wave sources are a promising cosmological standard candle because their intrinsic luminosities are determined by fundamental physics (and are insensitive to dust extinction). They are, however, affected by weak lensing magnification due to the gravitational lensing from structures along the line of sight. This lensing is a source of uncertainty in the distance determination, even in the limit of perfect standard candle measurements. It is commonly believed that the uncertainty in the distance to an ensemble of gravitational wave sources is limited by the standard deviation of the lensing magnification distribution divided by the square root of the number of sources. Here we show that by exploiting the non-Gaussian nature of the lensing magnification distribution, we can improve this distance determination, typically by a factor of 2--3; we provide a fitting formula for the effective distance accuracy as a function of redshift for sources where the lensing noise dominates.Comment: matches PRD accepted version (expanded description of the cosmological parameter space + minor changes

    How black holes get their kicks: Gravitational radiation recoil revisited

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    Gravitational waves from the coalescence of binary black holes carry away linear momentum, causing center of mass recoil. This "radiation rocket" effect has important implications for systems with escape speeds of order the recoil velocity. We revisit this problem using black hole perturbation theory, treating the binary as a test mass spiraling into a spinning hole. For extreme mass ratios (q = m1/m2 << 1) we compute the recoil for the slow inspiral epoch of binary coalescence very accurately; these results can be extrapolated to q ~ 0.4 with modest accuracy. Although the recoil from the final plunge contributes significantly to the final recoil, we are only able to make crude estimates of its magnitude. We find that the recoil can easily reach ~ 100-200 km/s, but most likely does not exceed ~ 500 km/s. Though much lower than previous estimates, this recoil is large enough to have important astrophysical consequences. These include the ejection of black holes from globular clusters, dwarf galaxies, and high-redshift dark matter halos.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, emulateapj style; minor changes made; accepted to ApJ Letter
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