19,056 research outputs found

    Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, Albuminuria, and Adverse Outcomes:An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis

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    Importance: Chronic kidney disease (low estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] or albuminuria) affects approximately 14% of adults in the US. Objective: To evaluate associations of lower eGFR based on creatinine alone, lower eGFR based on creatinine combined with cystatin C, and more severe albuminuria with adverse kidney outcomes, cardiovascular outcomes, and other health outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual-participant data meta-analysis of 27503140 individuals from 114 global cohorts (eGFR based on creatinine alone) and 720736 individuals from 20 cohorts (eGFR based on creatinine and cystatin C) and 9067753 individuals from 114 cohorts (albuminuria) from 1980 to 2021. Exposures: The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration 2021 equations for eGFR based on creatinine alone and eGFR based on creatinine and cystatin C; and albuminuria estimated as urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). Main Outcomes and Measures: The risk of kidney failure requiring replacement therapy, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, acute kidney injury, any hospitalization, coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and peripheral artery disease. The analyses were performed within each cohort and summarized with random-effects meta-analyses. Results: Within the population using eGFR based on creatinine alone (mean age, 54 years [SD, 17 years]; 51% were women; mean follow-up time, 4.8 years [SD, 3.3 years]), the mean eGFR was 90 mL/min/1.73 m2(SD, 22 mL/min/1.73 m2) and the median UACR was 11 mg/g (IQR, 8-16 mg/g). Within the population using eGFR based on creatinine and cystatin C (mean age, 59 years [SD, 12 years]; 53% were women; mean follow-up time, 10.8 years [SD, 4.1 years]), the mean eGFR was 88 mL/min/1.73 m2(SD, 22 mL/min/1.73 m2) and the median UACR was 9 mg/g (IQR, 6-18 mg/g). Lower eGFR (whether based on creatinine alone or based on creatinine and cystatin C) and higher UACR were each significantly associated with higher risk for each of the 10 adverse outcomes, including those in the mildest categories of chronic kidney disease. For example, among people with a UACR less than 10 mg/g, an eGFR of 45 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m2based on creatinine alone was associated with significantly higher hospitalization rates compared with an eGFR of 90 to 104 mL/min/1.73 m2(adjusted hazard ratio, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.2-1.3]; 161 vs 79 events per 1000 person-years; excess absolute risk, 22 events per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 19-25 events per 1000 person-years]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective analysis of 114 cohorts, lower eGFR based on creatinine alone, lower eGFR based on creatinine and cystatin C, and more severe UACR were each associated with increased rates of 10 adverse outcomes, including adverse kidney outcomes, cardiovascular diseases, and hospitalizations.</p

    ALMA Survey of Orion Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (ALMASOP): Discovery of an Extremely Dense and Compact Object Embedded in the Prestellar Core G208.68-19.92-N2

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    The internal structure of the prestellar core G208.68-19.02-N2 (G208-N2) in the Orion Molecular Cloud 3 (OMC-3) region has been studied with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. The dust continuum emission revealed a filamentary structure with a length of ∌5000 au and an average H _2 volume density of ∌6 × 10 ^7 cm ^−3 . At the tip of this filamentary structure, there is a compact object, which we call a nucleus , with a radius of ∌150–200 au and a mass of ∌0.1 M _⊙ . The nucleus has a central density of ∌2 × 10 ^9 cm ^−3 with a radial density profile of r ^−1.87±0.11 . The density scaling of the nucleus is ∌3.7 times higher than that of the singular isothermal sphere (SIS). This as well as the very low virial parameter of 0.39 suggests that the gravity is dominant over the pressure everywhere in the nucleus. However, there is no sign of CO outflow localized to this nucleus. The filamentary structure is traced by the N _2 D ^+ 3–2 emission, but not by the C ^18 O 2–1 emission, implying the significant CO depletion due to high density and cold temperature. Toward the nucleus, the N _2 D ^+ also shows the signature of depletion. This could imply either the depletion of the parent molecule, N _2 , or the presence of the embedded very-low luminosity central source that could sublimate the CO in the very small area. The nucleus in G208-N2 is considered to be a prestellar core on the verge of first hydrostatic core (FHSC) formation or a candidate for the FHSC

    Magnetic fields of the starless core L 1512

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    We present JCMT POL-2 850 um dust polarization observations and Mimir H band stellar polarization observations toward the starless core L1512. We detect the highly-ordered core-scale magnetic field traced by the POL-2 data, of which the field orientation is consistent with the parsec-scale magnetic fields traced by Planck data, suggesting the large-scale fields thread from the low-density region to the dense core region in this cloud. The surrounding magnetic field traced by the Mimir data shows a wider variation in the field orientation, suggesting there could be a transition of magnetic field morphology at the envelope scale. L1512 was suggested to be presumably older than 1.4 Myr in a previous study via time-dependent chemical analysis, hinting that the magnetic field could be strong enough to slow the collapse of L1512. In this study, we use the Davis-Chandrasekhar-Fermi method to derive a plane-of-sky magnetic field strength (Bpos) of 18±7 uG and an observed mass-to-flux ratio (λobs) of 3.5±2.4, suggesting that L1512 is magnetically supercritical. However, the absence of significant infall motion and the presence of an oscillating envelope are inconsistent with the magnetically supercritical condition. Using a Virial analysis, we suggest the presence of a hitherto hidden line-of-sight magnetic field strength of ~27 uG with a mass-to-flux ratio (λtot) of ~1.6, in which case both magnetic and kinetic pressures are important in supporting the L1512 core. On the other hand, L1512 may have just reached supercriticality and will collapse at any time

    Comparing Cognitive Tests and Smartphone‐Based Assessment in 2 US Community‐Based Cohorts

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    Background Smartphone‐based cognitive assessments have emerged as promising tools, bridging gaps in accessibility and reducing bias in Alzheimer disease and related dementia research. However, their congruence with traditional neuropsychological tests and usefulness in diverse cohorts remain underexplored. Methods and Results A total of 406 FHS (Framingham Heart Study) and 59 BHS (Bogalusa Heart Study) participants with traditional neuropsychological tests and digital assessments using the Defense Automated Neurocognitive Assessment (DANA) smartphone protocol were included. Regression models investigated associations between DANA task digital measures and a neuropsychological global cognitive Z score (Global Cognitive Score [GCS]), and neuropsychological domain‐specific Z scores. FHS participants’ mean age was 57 (SD, 9.75) years, and 44% (179) were men. BHS participants' mean age was 49 (4.4) years, and 28% (16) were men. Participants in both cohorts with the lowest neuropsychological performance (lowest quartile, GCS1) demonstrated lower DANA digital scores. In the FHS, GCS1 participants had slower average response times and decreased cognitive efficiency scores in all DANA tasks (P<0.05). In BHS, participants in GCS1 had slower average response times and decreased cognitive efficiency scores for DANA Code Substitution and Go/No‐Go tasks, although this was not statistically significant. In both cohorts, GCS was significantly associated with DANA tasks, such that higher GCS correlated with faster average response times (P<0.05) and increased cognitive efficiency (all P<0.05) in the DANA Code Substitution task. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that smartphone‐based cognitive assessments exhibit concurrent validity with a composite measure of traditional neuropsychological tests. This supports the potential of using smartphone‐based assessments in cognitive screening across diverse populations and the scalability of digital assessments to community‐dwelling individuals

    Amivantamab plus chemotherapy with and without lazertinib in EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC after disease progression on osimertinib: primary results from the phase III MARIPOSA-2 study.

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    BACKGROUND: Amivantamab plus carboplatin-pemetrexed (chemotherapy) with and without lazertinib demonstrated antitumor activity in patients with refractory epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in phase I studies. These combinations were evaluated in a global phase III trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 657 patients with EGFR-mutated (exon 19 deletions or L858R) locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC after disease progression on osimertinib were randomized 2 : 2 : 1 to receive amivantamab-lazertinib-chemotherapy, chemotherapy, or amivantamab-chemotherapy. The dual primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) of amivantamab-chemotherapy and amivantamab-lazertinib-chemotherapy versus chemotherapy. During the study, hematologic toxicities observed in the amivantamab-lazertinib-chemotherapy arm necessitated a regimen change to start lazertinib after carboplatin completion. RESULTS: All baseline characteristics were well balanced across the three arms, including by history of brain metastases and prior brain radiation. PFS was significantly longer for amivantamab-chemotherapy and amivantamab-lazertinib-chemotherapy versus chemotherapy [hazard ratio (HR) for disease progression or death 0.48 and 0.44, respectively; P < 0.001 for both; median of 6.3 and 8.3 versus 4.2 months, respectively]. Consistent PFS results were seen by investigator assessment (HR for disease progression or death 0.41 and 0.38 for amivantamab-chemotherapy and amivantamab-lazertinib-chemotherapy, respectively; P < 0.001 for both; median of 8.2 and 8.3 versus 4.2 months, respectively). Objective response rate was significantly higher for amivantamab-chemotherapy and amivantamab-lazertinib-chemotherapy versus chemotherapy (64% and 63% versus 36%, respectively; P < 0.001 for both). Median intracranial PFS was 12.5 and 12.8 versus 8.3 months for amivantamab-chemotherapy and amivantamab-lazertinib-chemotherapy versus chemotherapy (HR for intracranial disease progression or death 0.55 and 0.58, respectively). Predominant adverse events (AEs) in the amivantamab-containing regimens were hematologic, EGFR-, and MET-related toxicities. Amivantamab-chemotherapy had lower rates of hematologic AEs than amivantamab-lazertinib-chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Amivantamab-chemotherapy and amivantamab-lazertinib-chemotherapy improved PFS and intracranial PFS versus chemotherapy in a population with limited options after disease progression on osimertinib. Longer follow-up is needed for the modified amivantamab-lazertinib-chemotherapy regimen

    Filamentary Network and Magnetic Field Structures Revealed with BISTRO in the High-mass Star-forming Region NGC 2264: Global Properties and Local Magnetogravitational Configurations

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    We report 850 Όm continuum polarization observations toward the filamentary high-mass star-forming region NGC 2264, taken as part of the B-fields In STar forming Regions Observations large program on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. These data reveal a well-structured nonuniform magnetic field in the NGC 2264C and 2264D regions with a prevailing orientation around 30° from north to east. Field strength estimates and a virial analysis of the major clumps indicate that NGC 2264C is globally dominated by gravity, while in 2264D, magnetic, gravitational, and kinetic energies are roughly balanced. We present an analysis scheme that utilizes the locally resolved magnetic field structures, together with the locally measured gravitational vector field and the extracted filamentary network. From this, we infer statistical trends showing that this network consists of two main groups of filaments oriented approximately perpendicular to one another. Additionally, gravity shows one dominating converging direction that is roughly perpendicular to one of the filament orientations, which is suggestive of mass accretion along this direction. Beyond these statistical trends, we identify two types of filaments. The type I filament is perpendicular to the magnetic field with local gravity transitioning from parallel to perpendicular to the magnetic field from the outside to the filament ridge. The type II filament is parallel to the magnetic field and local gravity. We interpret these two types of filaments as originating from the competition between radial collapsing, driven by filament self-gravity, and longitudinal collapsing, driven by the region's global gravity

    Data_Sheet_1_Differential diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment of Alzheimer’s disease by Simoa p-tau181 measurements with matching plasma and CSF.docx

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    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by a long preclinical phase. Although late-stage AD/dementia may be robustly differentiated from cognitively normal individuals by means of a clinical evaluation, PET imaging, and established biofluid biomarkers, disease differentiation between cognitively normal and various subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains a challenging task. Differential biomarkers for early-stage AD diagnosis with accessible biofluid samples are urgently needed. Misfolded phosphorylated tau aggregates (p-tau) are present in multiple neurodegenerative diseases known as “tauopathies”, with the most common being AD. P-tau181 is a well-established p-tau biomarker to differentiate AD dementia from non-AD pathology. However, it is unclear if p-tau181 is capable of diagnosing MCI, an early AD stage, from cognitively normal subjects, or if it can discriminate MCI subtypes amnestic MCI (aMCI) from non-amnestic MCI (naMCI). Here we evaluated the capability of p-tau181 in diagnosing MCI from cognitively normal subjects and discriminating aMCI from naMCI subtypes. We collected matching plasma and CSF samples of a clinically diagnosed cohort of 35 cognitively normal, 34 aMCI, 17 naMCI, and 31 AD dementia cases (total 117 participants) with supplemental CSF AÎČ42 and total tau AD biomarker levels and performed Simoa p-tau181 assays. The diagnostic capabilities of Simoa p-tau181 assays to differentiate these cohorts were evaluated. We found (i) p-tau181 can robustly differentiate MCI or aMCI from cognitively normal cohorts with matching plasma and CSF samples, but such differentiation is weaker in diagnosing naMCI from cognitively normal groups, (ii) p-tau181 is not capable of differentiating aMCI from naMCI cohorts, and (iii) either factor of AÎČ or total tau burden markedly improved differentiation power to diagnose aMCI from cognitively normal group. Plasma and CSF p-tau181 levels may serve as a promising biomarker for diagnosing aMCI from normal controls in the preclinical phase. But more robust new biomarkers are needed to differentiate naMCI from cognitively normal cases or to discriminate between MCI subtypes, aMCI from naMCI.</p

    Association of age of adverse childhood experiences with thalamic volumes and post-traumatic stress disorder in adulthood

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    BackgroundAdverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to brain development and mental disorders, however, the impact of the age of occurrence of ACEs on thalamic volume and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after adult trauma remains unclear. This study assessed associations between ACEs at different ages to thalamic volumes and PTSD development following acute adult trauma.MethodsSeventy-nine adult trauma survivors were recruited immediately after trauma. Within 2 weeks of the traumatic event, participants completed the PTSD Checklist (PCL) to assess PTSD symptoms, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Childhood Age Range Stress Scale (CARSS) to evaluate ACEs and perceived stress level at preschool (&lt;6 years old) and school (6–13 years old) ages, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) to measure thalamic volumes. Participants were divided into three groups: those who experienced no childhood trauma or stress (non-ACEs), those who experienced childhood trauma and stress onset at preschool ages (Presch-ACEs), and those who experienced childhood trauma and stress onset at school ages (Sch-ACEs). At 3 months, participants underwent PTSD symptom evaluation using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS).ResultsAdult trauma survivors in the Presch-ACEs group had higher CTQ and CAPS scores. In addition, survivors in the Presch-ACEs group had smaller thalamic volume compared to survivors in the non-ACEs and Sch-ACEs groups. Furthermore, smaller thalamic volume moderated a positive association between post-trauma 2-week PCL and subsequent 3-month CAPS scores.DiscussionEarlier occurrence of ACEs was associated with smaller thalamic volume, which appears to moderate a positive association between early posttraumatic stress symptom severity and PTSD development after adult trauma. This raises the possibility that early occurrence of ACEs may impact thalamic structure, specifically a reduction in thalamic volume, and that smaller thalamic volume may contribute to susceptibility to PTSD development after adult trauma

    Real-time, smartphone-based processing of lateral flow assays for early failure detection and rapid testing workflows

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    Despite their simplicity, lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) remain a crucial weapon in the diagnostic arsenal, particularly at the point-of-need. However, methods for analysing LFIAs still rely heavily on sub-optimal human readout and rudimentary end-point analysis. This negatively impacts both testing accuracy and testing times, ultimately lowering diagnostic throughput. Herein, we present an automated computational imaging method for processing and analysing multiple LFIAs in real-time and in parallel. This method relies on the automated detection of signal intensity at the test line, control line, and background, and employs statistical comparison of these values to predictively categorise tests as “positive”, “negative”, or “failed”. We show that such a computational methodology can be transferred to a smartphone and detail how real-time analysis of LFIAs can be leveraged to decrease the time-to-result and increase testing throughput. We compare our method to naked-eye readout and demonstrate a shorter time-to-result across a range of target antigen concentrations and fewer false negatives compared to human subjects at low antigen concentrations

    Unraveling the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis using whole-genome sequencing combined with environmental and demographic data

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    When studying the dynamics of a pathogen in a host population, one crucial question is whether it transitioned from an epidemic (i.e., the pathogen population and the number of infected hosts are increasing) to an endemic stable state (i.e., the pathogen population reached an equilibrium). For slow-growing and slow-evolving clonal pathogens such as Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine (or animal) and zoonotic tuberculosis, it can be challenging to discriminate between these two states. This is a result of the combination of suboptimal detection tests so that the actual extent of the pathogen prevalence is often unknown, as well as of the low genetic diversity, which can hide the temporal signal provided by the accumulation of mutations in the bacterial DNA. In recent years, the increased availability, efficiency, and reliability of genomic reading techniques, such as whole-genome sequencing (WGS), have significantly increased the amount of information we can use to study infectious diseases, and therefore, it has improved the precision of epidemiological inferences for pathogens such as M. bovis. In this study, we use WGS to gain insights into the epidemiology of M. bovis in Cameroon, a developing country where the pathogen has been reported for decades. A total of 91 high-quality sequences were obtained from tissue samples collected in four abattoirs, 64 of which were with complete metadata. We combined these with environmental, demographic, ecological, and cattle movement data to generate inferences using phylodynamic models. Our findings suggest M. bovis in Cameroon is slowly expanding its epidemiological range over time; therefore, endemic stability is unlikely. This suggests that animal movement plays an important role in transmission. The simultaneous prevalence of M. bovis in co-located cattle and humans highlights the risk of such transmission being zoonotic. Therefore, using genomic tools as part of surveillance would vastly improve our understanding of disease ecology and control strategies
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