507 research outputs found

    New perspectives for neutron capture measurements in the upgraded CERN-n_TOF Facility

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    This work has been carried out in the framework of a project funded by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union ' s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (ERC Consolidator Grant project HYMNS, with grant agreement No. 681740). This work was supported by grant FJC2020-044688-I funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by European Union NextGenerationEU/PRTR. The authors acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion under grants PID2019-104714GB-C21, FPA2017-83946-C2-1-P, FIS2015-71688-ERC, CSIC for funding PIE-201750I26.The n_TOF facility has just undergone in 2021 a major upgrade with the installation of its third generation spallation target that has been designed to optimize the performance of the two n_TOF time-of-flight lines. This contribution describes the key features and limitations for capture measurements in the two beam lines prior to the target upgrade and presents first results of (n,gamma) measurements carried out as part of the commissioning of the upgraded facility. In particular, the energy resolution, a key factor for both increasing the signal-to background ratio and obtaining accurate resonance parameters, has been clearly improved for the 20 m long vertical beam-line with the new target design while keeping the remarkably high resolution of the long beamline n_TOF-EAR1. The improvements in the n_TOF neutron beam-lines need to be accompanied by improvements in the instrumentation. A review is given on recent detector R&D projects aimed at tackling the existing challenges and further improving the capabilities of this facility.European Research Council (ERC)European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme HYMNS 681740MCIN/AEI FJC2020-044688-IEuropean Union (EU)Instituto de Salud Carlos III Spanish Government PID2019-104714GB-C21, FPA2017-83946-C2-1-P, FIS2015-71688-ERCCSIC PIE-201750I2

    New detection systems for an enhanced sensitivity in key stellar (n,ő≥) measurements

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    Neutron capture cross-section measurements are fundamental in the study of astrophysical phenomena, such as the slow neutron capture (s-) process of nucleosynthesis operating in red-giant and massive stars. However, neutron capture measurements via the time-of-flight (TOF) technique on key s-process nuclei are often challenging. Difficulties arise from the limited mass (‚ąľmg) available and the high sample-related background in the case of the unstable s-process branching points. Measurements on neutron magic nuclei, that act as s-process bottlenecks, are affected by low (n,ő≥) cross sections and a dominant neutron scattering background. Overcoming these experimental challenges requires the combination of facilities with high instantaneous flux, such as n_TOFEAR2, with detection systems with an enhanced detection sensitivity and high counting rate capabilities. This contribution reviews some of the latest detector developments in detection systems for (n,ő≥) measurements at n_TOF, such as i-TED, an innovative detection system which exploits the Compton imaging technique to reduce the dominant neutron scattering background and s-TED, a highly segmented total energy detector intended for high flux facilities. The discussion will be illustrated with results of the first measurement of key the s-process branching-point reaction 79Se(n,ő≥).Title in Web of Science: New detection systems for an enhanced sensitivity in key stellar (n,gamma) measurements</p

    Rates and Predictors of Treatment Failure in Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Joint Infections According to Different Management Strategies: A Multinational Cohort Study‚ÄĒThe ARTHR-IS Study Group

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    Introduction: Guidelines have improved the management of prosthetic joint infections (PJI). However, it is necessary to reassess the incidence and risk factors for treatment failure (TF) of Staphylococcus aureus PJI (SA-PJI) including functional loss, which has so far been neglected as an outcome. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of SA-PJI was performed in 19 European hospitals between 2014 and 2016. The outcome variable was TF, including related mortality, clinical failure and functional loss both after the initial surgical procedure and after all procedures at 18 months. Predictors of TF were identified by logistic regression. Landmark analysis was used to avoid immortal time bias with rifampicin when debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) was performed. Results: One hundred twenty cases of SA-PJI were included. TF rates after the first and all surgical procedures performed were 32.8% and 24.2%, respectively. After all procedures, functional loss was 6.0% for DAIR and 17.2% for prosthesis removal. Variables independently associated with TF for the first procedure were Charlson >= 2, haemoglobin 30 kg/m(2) and delay of DAIR, while rifampicin use was protective. For all procedures, the variables associated with TF were haemoglobin < 10 g/dL, hip fracture and additional joint surgery not related to persistent infection. Conclusions: TF remains common in SA-PJI. Functional loss accounted for a substantial proportion of treatment failures, particularly after prosthesis removal. Use of rifampicin after DAIR was associated with a protective effect. Among the risk factors identified, anaemia and obesity have not frequently been reported in previous studies. [GRAPHICS]

    High resolution

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    Neutron capture cross section measurements of isotopes close to s-process branching-points are of fundamental importance for the understanding of this nucleosynthesis mechanism through which about 50% of the elements heavier than iron are produced. We present in this contribution the results corresponding to the high resolution measurement, for first time ever, of the 80Se(n, ő≥) cross section, in which 98 resonances never measured before have been reported. As a consequence, ten times more precise values for the MACS have been obtained compared to previous accepted value adopted in the astrophysical KADoNiS data base

    Characterisation of the n_TOF 20 m beam line at CERN with the new spallation target

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    The n_TOF facility hosts CERN's pulsed neutron source, comprising two beam lines of different flight paths and one activation station. It is based on a proton beam delivered by the PS accelerator impinging on a lead spallation target. During Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) at CERN (2019-2021), a major upgrade of the spallation target was carried out in order to optimize the performances of the neutron beam. Therefore, the characteristics of n_TOF two experimental areas were investigated in detail. In this work, the focus is on the second experimental area (EAR2), located 20 m above the spallation target. Preliminary results of the neutron energy distribution and beam line energy resolution are presented, compared to previous experimental campaigns and Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code. Moreover, preliminary results of the spatial beam profile measurements are shown

    Measurement of the 77Se(n,ő≥)^{77}Se ( n , ő≥ ) cross section up to 200 keV at the n_TOF facility at CERN

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    The 77Se(n,ő≥)^{77}Se ( n , ő≥ ) reaction is of importance for 77Se^{77}Se abundance during the slow neutron capture process in massive stars. We have performed a new measurement of the 77Se^{77}Se radiative neutron capture cross section at the Neutron Time-of-Flight facility at CERN. Resonance capture kernels were derived up to 51 keV and cross sections up to 200 keV. Maxwellian-averaged cross sections were calculated for stellar temperatures between kT=5¬†keVkT=5 \space keV and kT=100¬†keVkT=100\space keV, with uncertainties between 4.2% and 5.7%. Our results lead to substantial decreases of 14% and 19% in 77Se^{77}Se abundances produced through the slow neutron capture process in selected stellar models of 15M‚äô15M‚äô and 2M‚äô2M‚äô, respectively, compared to using previous recommendation of the cross section

    Measurement of the

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    The neutron capture cross section of 241Am is an important quantity for nuclear energy production and fuel cycle scenarios. Several measurements have been performed in recent years with the aim to reduce existing uncertainties in evaluated data. Two previous measurements, performed at the 185 m flight-path station EAR1 of the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN, have permitted to substantially extend the resolved resonance region, but suffered in the near-thermal energy range from the unfavorable signal-to-background ratio resulting from the combination of the high radioactivity of 241Am and the rather low thermal neutron flux. The here presented 241Am(n,ő≥) measurement, performed with C6D6 liquid scintillator gamma detectors at the 20 m flight-path station EAR2 of the n_TOF facility, took advantage of the much higher neutron flux. The current status of the analysis of the data, focussed on the low-energy region, will be described here

    Compton imaging for enhanced sensitivity (n,ő≥) cross section TOF experiments: Status and prospects

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    Radiative neutron-capture cross sections are of pivotal importance in many fields such as nucle-osynthesis studies or innovative reactor technologies. A large number of isotopes have been measured with high accuracy, but there are still a large number of relevant isotopes whose cross sections could not be experimentally determined yet, at least with sufficient accuracy and completeness, owing to limitations in detection techniques, sample production methods or in the facilities themselves. In the context of the HYMNS (High-sensitivitY Measurements of key stellar Nucleo-Synthesis reactions) project over the last six years we have developed a novel detection technique aimed at background suppression in radiative neutron-capture time-of-flight measurements. This new technique utilizes a complex detection set-up based on position-sensitive radiation-detectors deployed in a Compton-camera array configuration. The latter enables to implement gamma-ray imaging techniques, which help to disentangle true capture events arising from the sample under study and contaminant background events from the surroundings. A summary on the main developments is given in this contribution together with an update on recent experiments at CERN n_TOF and an outlook on future steps

    Measurement of the <math><mrow><mmultiscripts><mi>Se</mi><mprescripts/><none/><mn>77</mn></mmultiscripts><mo>(</mo><mi>n</mi><mo>,</mo><mi>ő≥</mi><mo>)</mo></mrow></math> cross section¬†up to 200 keV at the n_TOF facility at CERN

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    International audienceThe Se77(n,ő≥) reaction is of importance for Se77 abundance during the slow neutron capture process in massive stars. We have performed a new measurement of the Se77 radiative neutron capture cross section¬†at the Neutron Time-of-Flight facility at CERN. Resonance capture kernels were derived up to 51 keV and cross sections¬†up to 200 keV. Maxwellian-averaged cross sections¬†were calculated for stellar temperatures between kT=5keV and kT=100keV, with uncertainties between 4.2% and 5.7%. Our results lead to substantial decreases of 14% and 19% in Se77 abundances produced through the slow neutron capture process in selected stellar models of 15M‚äô and 2M‚äô, respectively, compared to using previous recommendation of the cross section

    Results of the

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    Accurate neutron capture cross section data for minor actinides (MAs) are required to estimate the production and transmutation rates of MAs in light water reactors, critical fast reactors like Gen-IV systems, and other innovative reactor systems such as accelerator driven systems (ADS). In particular, 244Cm, 246Cm and 248Cm play a role in the transport, storage and transmutation of the nuclear waste of the current nuclear reactors, due to the contribution of these isotopes to the radiotoxicity, neutron emission, and decay heat in the spent nuclear fuel. Also, capture reactions in these Cm isotopes open the path for the formation of heavier elements. In this work, the results of the capture cross section measurement on 244Cm, 246Cm and 248Cm performed at the CERN n_TOF facility are presented. It is important to notice that the Cm samples used in the experiment at n_TOF have been used previously in an experiment at J-PARC, this experiment and the previous one done in the 70s with a nuclear explosion were the only previous capture experiments for these isotopes. At n_TOF, the capture cross section measurements of 244Cm, 246Cm and 248Cm were performed at the 20 m vertical flight path (EAR2) with three C6D6 total energy detectors. In addition, the cross section of 244Cm was measured at the 185 m flight path (EAR1) with a Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC). The combination of measurements in EAR1 and EAR2 has contributed to controlling and reducing the systematic uncertainties in the results. The compatibility of the different measurements performed and the techniques to obtain the results are presented in this paper as well as the procedure to obtain the resonance parameters
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