91 research outputs found

    Simulations of the Galaxy Cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301 I: Thermal Model and Shock Properties

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    The giant radio relic in CIZA J2242.8+5301 is likely evidence of a Mpc sized shock in a massive merging galaxy cluster. However, the exact shock properties are still not clearly determined. In particular, the Mach number derived from the integrated radio spectrum exceeds the Mach number derived from the X-ray temperature jump by a factor of two. We present here a numerical study, aiming for a model that is consistent with the majority of observations of this galaxy cluster. We first show that in the northern shock upstream X-ray temperature and radio data are consistent with each other. We then derive progenitor masses for the system using standard density profiles, X-ray properties and the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. We find a class of models that is roughly consistent with weak lensing data, radio data and some of the X-ray data. Assuming a cool-core versus non-cool-core merger, we find a fiducial model with a total mass of 1.6×1015 M⊙1.6 \times 10^{15}\,M_\odot, a mass ratio of 1.76 and a Mach number that is consistent with estimates from the radio spectrum. We are not able to match X-ray derived Mach numbers, because even low mass models over-predict the X-ray derived shock speeds. We argue that deep X-ray observations of CIZA J2242.8+5301 will be able to test our model and potentially reconcile X-ray and radio derived Mach numbers in relics.Comment: 19 pages, 19 figure

    An improved SPH scheme for cosmological simulations

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    We present an implementation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) with improved accuracy for simulations of galaxies and the large-scale structure. In particular, we combine, implement, modify and test a vast majority of SPH improvement techniques in the latest instalment of the GADGET code. We use the Wendland kernel functions, a particle wake-up time-step limiting mechanism and a time-dependent scheme for artificial viscosity, which includes a high-order gradient computation and shear flow limiter. Additionally, we include a novel prescription for time-dependent artificial conduction, which corrects for gravitationally induced pressure gradients and largely improves the SPH performance in capturing the development of gas-dynamical instabilities. We extensively test our new implementation in a wide range of hydrodynamical standard tests including weak and strong shocks as well as shear flows, turbulent spectra, gas mixing, hydrostatic equilibria and self-gravitating gas clouds. We jointly employ all modifications; however, when necessary we study the performance of individual code modules. We approximate hydrodynamical states more accurately and with significantly less noise than standard SPH. Furthermore, the new implementation promotes the mixing of entropy between different fluid phases, also within cosmological simulations. Finally, we study the performance of the hydrodynamical solver in the context of radiative galaxy formation and non-radiative galaxy cluster formation. We find galactic disks to be colder, thinner and more extended and our results on galaxy clusters show entropy cores instead of steadily declining entropy profiles. In summary, we demonstrate that our improved SPH implementation overcomes most of the undesirable limitations of standard SPH, thus becoming the core of an efficient code for large cosmological simulations.Comment: 21 figures, 2 tables, accepted to MNRA

    Cluster magnetic fields through the study of polarized radio halos in the SKA era

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    Galaxy clusters are unique laboratories to investigate turbulent fluid motions and large scale magnetic fields. Synchrotron radio halos at the center of merging galaxy clusters provide the most spectacular and direct evidence of the presence of relativistic particles and magnetic fields associated with the intracluster medium. The study of polarized emission from radio halos is extremely important to constrain the properties of intracluster magnetic fields and the physics of the acceleration and transport of the relativistic particles. However, detecting this polarized signal is a very hard task with the current radio facilities.We use cosmological magneto-hydrodynamical simulations to predict the expected polarized surface brightness of radio halos at 1.4 GHz. We compare these expectations with the sensitivity and the resolution reachable with the SKA1. This allows us to evaluate the potential for studying intracluster magnetic fields in the surveys planned for SKA1.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures; to appear as part of 'Cosmic Magnetism' in Proceedings 'Advancing Astrophysics with the SKA (AASKA14)', PoS(AASKA14)10

    Deep LOFAR observations of the merging galaxy cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301

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    Previous studies have shown that CIZA J2242.8+5301 (the 'Sausage' cluster, z = 0.192) is a massive merging galaxy cluster that hosts a radio halo and multiple relics. In this paper, we present deep, high-fidelity, low-frequency images made with the LOw-Frequency Array (LOFAR) between 115.5 and 179 MHz. These images, with a noise of 140 μJy beam- 1 and a resolution of θbeam = 7.3 arcsec × 5.3 arcsec, are an order of magnitude more sensitive and five times higher resolution than previous low-frequency images of this cluster. We combined the LOFAR data with the existing Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) (153, 323, 608 MHz) and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) (1.2, 1.4, 1.7, 2.3 GHz) data to study the spectral properties of the radio emission from the cluster. Assuming diffusive shock acceleration (DSA), we found Mach numbers of Mn=2.7{}_{-0.3}^{+0.6} and Ms=1.9_{-0.2}^{+0.3} for the northern and southern shocks. The derived Mach number for the northern shock requires an acceleration efficiency of several percent to accelerate electrons from the thermal pool, which is challenging for DSA. Using the radio data, we characterized the eastern relic as a shock wave propagating outwards with a Mach number of Me=2.4_{-0.3}^{+0.5}, which is in agreement with MeX=2.5{}_{-0.2}^{+0.6} that we derived from Suzaku data. The eastern shock is likely to be associated with the major cluster merger. The radio halo was measured with a flux of 346 ± 64 mJy at 145 MHz. Across the halo, we observed a spectral index that remains approximately constant (α ^{145 MHz-2.3 GHz}_{{across ˜ 1 Mpc}^2}=-1.01± 0.10) after the steepening in the post-shock region of the northern relic. This suggests a generation of post-shock turbulence that re-energies aged electrons

    Magnetic Field Amplification in Galaxy Clusters and its Simulation

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    We review the present theoretical and numerical understanding of magnetic field amplification in cosmic large-scale structure, on length scales of galaxy clusters and beyond. Structure formation drives compression and turbulence, which amplify tiny magnetic seed fields to the microGauss values that are observed in the intracluster medium. This process is intimately connected to the properties of turbulence and the microphysics of the intra-cluster medium. Additional roles are played by merger induced shocks that sweep through the intra-cluster medium and motions induced by sloshing cool cores. The accurate simulation of magnetic field amplification in clusters still poses a serious challenge for simulations of cosmological structure formation. We review the current literature on cosmological simulations that include magnetic fields and outline theoretical as well as numerical challenges.Comment: 60 pages, 19 Figure

    Forced Convection Heat Transfer from a Finite-Height Cylinder

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    [EN] This paper presents a large eddy simulation of forced convection heat transfer in the flow around a surface-mounted finite-height circular cylinder. The study was carried out for a cylinder with height-to-diameter ratio of 2.5, a Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter of 44 000 and a Prandtl number of 1. Only the surface of the cylinder is heated while the bottom wall and the inflow are kept at a lower fixed temperature. The approach flow boundary layer had a thickness of about 10% of the cylinder height. Local and averaged heat transfer coefficients are presented. The heat transfer coefficient is strongly affected by the free-end of the cylinder. As a result of the flow over the top being downwashed behind the cylinder, a vortex-shedding process does not occur in the upper part, leading to a lower value of the local heat transfer coefficient in that region. 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    Phosphorus removal from eutrophic waters with an aluminium hybrid nanocomposite

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    An excess of phosphorus (P) is the most common cause of eutrophication of freshwater bodies. Thus, it is imperative to reduce the concentration of P to prevent harmful algal blooms. Moreover, recovery of P has been gaining importance because its natural source will be exhausted in the near future. Therefore, the present work investigated the removal and recovery of phosphate from water using a newly developed hybrid nanocomposite containing aluminium nanoparticles (HPN). The HPN-Pr removes 0.80 ± 0.01 mg P/g in a pH interval between 2.0 and 6.5. The adsorption mechanism was described by a Freundlich adsorption model. The material presented good selectivity for phosphate and can be regenerated using an HCl dilute solution. The factors that contribute most to the attractiveness of HPN-Pr as a phosphate sorbent are its moderate removal capacity, feasible production at industrial scale, reuse after regeneration and recovery of phosphate.The authors acknowledge the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) Project SFRH/BD/39085/2007 for the financial support

    Subdiffraction, Luminescence-Depletion Imaging of Isolated, Giant, CdSe/CdS Nanocrystal Quantum Dots

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    Subdiffraction spatial resolution luminescence depletion imaging was performed with giant CdSe/14CdS nanocrystal quantum dots (g-NQDs) dispersed on a glass slide. Luminescence depletion imaging used a Gaussian shaped excitation laser pulse overlapped with a depletion pulse, shaped into a doughnut profile, with zero intensity in the center. Luminescence from a subdiffraction volume is collected from the central portion of the excitation spot, where no depletion takes place. Up to 92% depletion of the luminescence signal was achieved. An average full width at half-maximum of 40 ± 10 nm was measured in the lateral direction for isolated g-NQDs at an air interface using luminescence depletion imaging, whereas the average full width at half-maximum was 450 ± 90 nm using diffraction-limited, confocal luminescence imaging. Time-gating of the luminescence depletion data was required to achieve the stated spatial resolution. No observable photobleaching of the g-NQDs was present in the measurements, which allowed imaging with a dwell time of 250 ms per pixel to obtain images with a high signal-to-noise ratio. The mechanism for luminescence depletion is likely stimulated emission, stimulated absorption, or a combination of the two. The g-NQDs fulfill a need for versatile, photostable tags for subdiffraction imaging schemes where high laser powers or long exposure times are used
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