91 research outputs found

### Simulations of the Galaxy Cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301 I: Thermal Model and Shock Properties

The giant radio relic in CIZA J2242.8+5301 is likely evidence of a Mpc sized
shock in a massive merging galaxy cluster. However, the exact shock properties
are still not clearly determined. In particular, the Mach number derived from
the integrated radio spectrum exceeds the Mach number derived from the X-ray
temperature jump by a factor of two. We present here a numerical study, aiming
for a model that is consistent with the majority of observations of this galaxy
cluster. We first show that in the northern shock upstream X-ray temperature
and radio data are consistent with each other. We then derive progenitor masses
for the system using standard density profiles, X-ray properties and the
assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. We find a class of models that is
roughly consistent with weak lensing data, radio data and some of the X-ray
data. Assuming a cool-core versus non-cool-core merger, we find a fiducial
model with a total mass of $1.6 \times 10^{15}\,M_\odot$, a mass ratio of 1.76
and a Mach number that is consistent with estimates from the radio spectrum. We
are not able to match X-ray derived Mach numbers, because even low mass models
over-predict the X-ray derived shock speeds. We argue that deep X-ray
observations of CIZA J2242.8+5301 will be able to test our model and
potentially reconcile X-ray and radio derived Mach numbers in relics.Comment: 19 pages, 19 figure

### An improved SPH scheme for cosmological simulations

We present an implementation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) with
improved accuracy for simulations of galaxies and the large-scale structure. In
particular, we combine, implement, modify and test a vast majority of SPH
improvement techniques in the latest instalment of the GADGET code. We use the
Wendland kernel functions, a particle wake-up time-step limiting mechanism and
a time-dependent scheme for artificial viscosity, which includes a high-order
gradient computation and shear flow limiter. Additionally, we include a novel
prescription for time-dependent artificial conduction, which corrects for
gravitationally induced pressure gradients and largely improves the SPH
performance in capturing the development of gas-dynamical instabilities. We
extensively test our new implementation in a wide range of hydrodynamical
standard tests including weak and strong shocks as well as shear flows,
turbulent spectra, gas mixing, hydrostatic equilibria and self-gravitating gas
clouds. We jointly employ all modifications; however, when necessary we study
the performance of individual code modules. We approximate hydrodynamical
states more accurately and with significantly less noise than standard SPH.
Furthermore, the new implementation promotes the mixing of entropy between
different fluid phases, also within cosmological simulations. Finally, we study
the performance of the hydrodynamical solver in the context of radiative galaxy
formation and non-radiative galaxy cluster formation. We find galactic disks to
be colder, thinner and more extended and our results on galaxy clusters show
entropy cores instead of steadily declining entropy profiles. In summary, we
demonstrate that our improved SPH implementation overcomes most of the
undesirable limitations of standard SPH, thus becoming the core of an efficient
code for large cosmological simulations.Comment: 21 figures, 2 tables, accepted to MNRA

### Cluster magnetic fields through the study of polarized radio halos in the SKA era

Galaxy clusters are unique laboratories to investigate turbulent fluid
motions and large scale magnetic fields. Synchrotron radio halos at the center
of merging galaxy clusters provide the most spectacular and direct evidence of
the presence of relativistic particles and magnetic fields associated with the
intracluster medium. The study of polarized emission from radio halos is
extremely important to constrain the properties of intracluster magnetic fields
and the physics of the acceleration and transport of the relativistic
particles. However, detecting this polarized signal is a very hard task with
the current radio facilities.We use cosmological magneto-hydrodynamical
simulations to predict the expected polarized surface brightness of radio halos
at 1.4 GHz. We compare these expectations with the sensitivity and the
resolution reachable with the SKA1. This allows us to evaluate the potential
for studying intracluster magnetic fields in the surveys planned for SKA1.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures; to appear as part of 'Cosmic Magnetism' in
Proceedings 'Advancing Astrophysics with the SKA (AASKA14)', PoS(AASKA14)10

### Deep LOFAR observations of the merging galaxy cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301

Previous studies have shown that CIZA J2242.8+5301 (the 'Sausage' cluster, z = 0.192) is a massive merging galaxy cluster that hosts a radio halo and multiple relics. In this paper, we present deep, high-fidelity, low-frequency images made with the LOw-Frequency Array (LOFAR) between 115.5 and 179 MHz. These images, with a noise of 140 ÎĽJy beam- 1 and a resolution of Î¸beam = 7.3 arcsec Ă— 5.3 arcsec, are an order of magnitude more sensitive and five times higher resolution than previous low-frequency images of this cluster. We combined the LOFAR data with the existing Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) (153, 323, 608 MHz) and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) (1.2, 1.4, 1.7, 2.3 GHz) data to study the spectral properties of the radio emission from the cluster. Assuming diffusive shock acceleration (DSA), we found Mach numbers of Mn=2.7{}_{-0.3}^{+0.6} and Ms=1.9_{-0.2}^{+0.3} for the northern and southern shocks. The derived Mach number for the northern shock requires an acceleration efficiency of several percent to accelerate electrons from the thermal pool, which is challenging for DSA. Using the radio data, we characterized the eastern relic as a shock wave propagating outwards with a Mach number of Me=2.4_{-0.3}^{+0.5}, which is in agreement with MeX=2.5{}_{-0.2}^{+0.6} that we derived from Suzaku data. The eastern shock is likely to be associated with the major cluster merger. The radio halo was measured with a flux of 346 Â± 64 mJy at 145 MHz. Across the halo, we observed a spectral index that remains approximately constant (Î± ^{145 MHz-2.3 GHz}_{{across Ëś 1 Mpc}^2}=-1.01Â± 0.10) after the steepening in the post-shock region of the northern relic. This suggests a generation of post-shock turbulence that re-energies aged electrons

### Magnetic Field Amplification in Galaxy Clusters and its Simulation

We review the present theoretical and numerical understanding of magnetic
field amplification in cosmic large-scale structure, on length scales of galaxy
clusters and beyond. Structure formation drives compression and turbulence,
which amplify tiny magnetic seed fields to the microGauss values that are
observed in the intracluster medium. This process is intimately connected to
the properties of turbulence and the microphysics of the intra-cluster medium.
Additional roles are played by merger induced shocks that sweep through the
intra-cluster medium and motions induced by sloshing cool cores. The accurate
simulation of magnetic field amplification in clusters still poses a serious
challenge for simulations of cosmological structure formation. We review the
current literature on cosmological simulations that include magnetic fields and
outline theoretical as well as numerical challenges.Comment: 60 pages, 19 Figure

### Forced Convection Heat Transfer from a Finite-Height Cylinder

[EN] This paper presents a large eddy simulation of forced convection heat transfer in
the flow around a surface-mounted finite-height circular cylinder. The study was carried out
for a cylinder with height-to-diameter ratio of 2.5, a Reynolds number based on the cylinder
diameter of 44 000 and a Prandtl number of 1. Only the surface of the cylinder is heated
while the bottom wall and the inflow are kept at a lower fixed temperature. The approach
flow boundary layer had a thickness of about 10% of the cylinder height. Local and averaged
heat transfer coefficients are presented. The heat transfer coefficient is strongly affected
by the free-end of the cylinder. As a result of the flow over the top being downwashed
behind the cylinder, a vortex-shedding process does not occur in the upper part, leading
to a lower value of the local heat transfer coefficient in that region. In the lower region,
vortex-shedding takes place leading to higher values of the local heat transfer coefficient.
The circumferentially averaged heat transfer coefficient is 20 % higher near the ground than
near the top of the cylinder. The spreading and dilution of the mean temperature field in the
wake of the cylinder are also discussed.The simulation was carried out using the supercomputing facilities of the Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. MGV has been partially supported by grant TRA2012-37714 of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness.GarcĂa Villalba, M.; Palau-Salvador, G.; Rodi, W. (2014). Forced Convection Heat Transfer from a Finite-Height Cylinder. Flow, Turbulence and Combustion. 93(1):171-187. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10494-014-9543-7S171187931Ames, F., Dvorak, L.: Turbulent transport in pin fin arrays: experimental data and predictions. J. Turbomach. 128(1), 71â€“81 (2006)Armstrong, J., Winstanley, D.: A review of staggered array pin fin heat transfer for turbine cooling applications. J. Turbomach. 110, 94 (1988)Breuer, M., Rodi, W.: Large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flows of practical interest. In: Hirschel, E. (ed.) 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### Phosphorus removal from eutrophic waters with an aluminium hybrid nanocomposite

An excess of phosphorus (P) is the most common cause of eutrophication of freshwater bodies. Thus, it is imperative to reduce the concentration of P to prevent harmful algal blooms. Moreover, recovery of P has been gaining importance because its natural source will be exhausted in the near future. Therefore, the present work investigated the removal and recovery of phosphate from water using a newly developed hybrid nanocomposite containing aluminium nanoparticles (HPN). The HPN-Pr removes 0.80â€‰Â±â€‰0.01 mg P/g in a pH interval between 2.0 and 6.5. The adsorption mechanism was described by a Freundlich adsorption model. The material presented good selectivity for phosphate and can be regenerated using an HCl dilute solution. The factors that contribute most to the attractiveness of HPN-Pr as a phosphate sorbent are its moderate removal capacity, feasible production at industrial scale, reuse after regeneration and recovery of phosphate.The authors acknowledge the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) Project SFRH/BD/39085/2007 for the financial support

### Subdiffraction, Luminescence-Depletion Imaging of Isolated, Giant, CdSe/CdS Nanocrystal Quantum Dots

Subdiffraction spatial resolution luminescence depletion imaging was performed with giant CdSe/14CdS nanocrystal quantum dots (g-NQDs) dispersed on a glass slide. Luminescence depletion imaging used a Gaussian shaped excitation laser pulse overlapped with a depletion pulse, shaped into a doughnut profile, with zero intensity in the center. Luminescence from a subdiffraction volume is collected from the central portion of the excitation spot, where no depletion takes place. Up to 92% depletion of the luminescence signal was achieved. An average full width at half-maximum of 40 Â± 10 nm was measured in the lateral direction for isolated g-NQDs at an air interface using luminescence depletion imaging, whereas the average full width at half-maximum was 450 Â± 90 nm using diffraction-limited, confocal luminescence imaging. Time-gating of the luminescence depletion data was required to achieve the stated spatial resolution. No observable photobleaching of the g-NQDs was present in the measurements, which allowed imaging with a dwell time of 250 ms per pixel to obtain images with a high signal-to-noise ratio. The mechanism for luminescence depletion is likely stimulated emission, stimulated absorption, or a combination of the two. The g-NQDs fulfill a need for versatile, photostable tags for subdiffraction imaging schemes where high laser powers or long exposure times are used

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