1,001 research outputs found

    The clinical and genetic spectrum of autosomal-recessive TOR1A-related disorders.

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    In the field of rare diseases, progress in molecular diagnostics led to the recognition that variants linked to autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative diseases of later onset can, in the context of biallelic inheritance, cause devastating neurodevelopmental disorders and infantile or childhood-onset neurodegeneration. TOR1A-associated arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 5 (AMC5) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder arising from biallelic variants in TOR1A, a gene that in the heterozygous state is associated to torsion dystonia-1 (DYT1 or DYT-TOR1A), an early-onset dystonia with reduced penetrance. While 15 individuals with TOR1A-AMC5 have been reported (less than 10 in detail), a systematic investigation of the full disease-associated spectrum has not been conducted. Here, we assess the clinical, radiological and molecular characteristics of 57 individuals from 40 families with biallelic variants in TOR1A. Median age at last follow-up was 3 years (0-24 years). Most individuals presented with severe congenital flexion contractures (95%) and variable developmental delay (79%). Motor symptoms were reported in 79% and included lower limb spasticity and pyramidal signs, as well as gait disturbances. Facial dysmorphism was an integral part of the phenotype, with key features being a broad/full nasal tip, narrowing of the forehead and full cheeks. Analysis of disease-associated manifestations delineated a phenotypic spectrum ranging from normal cognition and mild gait disturbance to congenital arthrogryposis, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, absent speech and inability to walk. In a subset, the presentation was consistent with fetal akinesia deformation sequence with severe intrauterine abnormalities. Survival was 71% with higher mortality in males. Death occurred at a median age of 1.2 months (1 week - 9 years) due to respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, or sepsis. Analysis of brain MRI studies identified non-specific neuroimaging features, including a hypoplastic corpus callosum (72%), foci of signal abnormality in the subcortical and periventricular white matter (55%), diffuse white matter volume loss (45%), mega cisterna magna (36%) and arachnoid cysts (27%). The molecular spectrum included 22 distinct variants, defining a mutational hotspot in the C-terminal domain of the Torsin-1A protein. Genotype-phenotype analysis revealed an association of missense variants in the 3-helix bundle domain to an attenuated phenotype, while missense variants near the Walker A/B motif as well as biallelic truncating variants were linked to early death. In summary, this systematic cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort of individuals with biallelic TOR1A variants across a wide age-range delineates the clinical and genetic spectrum of TOR1A-related autosomal-recessive disease and highlights potential predictors for disease severity and survival

    Hemizygous variants in protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3F (PPP1R3F) are associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability and autistic features

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    Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3F (PPP1R3F) is a member of the glycogen targeting subunits (GTSs), which belong to the large group of regulatory subunits of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), a major eukaryotic serine/threonine protein phosphatase that regulates diverse cellular processes. Here, we describe the identification of hemizygous variants in PPP1R3F associated with a novel X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder in 13 unrelated individuals. This disorder is characterized by developmental delay, mild intellectual disability, neurobehavioral issues such as autism spectrum disorder, seizures and other neurological findings including tone, gait and cerebellar abnormalities. PPP1R3F variants segregated with disease in affected hemizygous males that inherited the variants from their heterozygous carrier mothers. We show that PPP1R3F is predominantly expressed in brain astrocytes and localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum in cells. Glycogen content in PPP1R3F knockout astrocytoma cells appears to be more sensitive to fluxes in extracellular glucose levels than in wild-type cells, suggesting that PPP1R3F functions in maintaining steady brain glycogen levels under changing glucose conditions. We performed functional studies on nine of the identified variants and observed defects in PP1 binding, protein stability, subcellular localization and regulation of glycogen metabolism in most of them. Collectively, the genetic and molecular data indicate that deleterious variants in PPP1R3F are associated with a new X-linked disorder of glycogen metabolism, highlighting the critical role of GTSs in neurological development. This research expands our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders and the role of PP1 in brain development and proper function

    Biallelic MED27 variants lead to variable ponto-cerebello-lental degeneration with movement disorders

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    Bi-allelic TTI1 variants cause an autosomal-recessive neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly.

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    Telomere maintenance 2 (TELO2), Tel2 interacting protein 2 (TTI2), and Tel2 interacting protein 1 (TTI1) are the three components of the conserved Triple T (TTT) complex that modulates activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKKs), including mTOR, ATM, and ATR, by regulating the assembly of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). The TTT complex is essential for the expression, maturation, and stability of ATM and ATR in response to DNA damage. TELO2- and TTI2-related bi-allelic autosomal-recessive (AR) encephalopathies have been described in individuals with moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID), short stature, postnatal microcephaly, and a movement disorder (in the case of variants within TELO2). We present clinical, genomic, and functional data from 11 individuals in 9 unrelated families with bi-allelic variants in TTI1. All present with ID, and most with microcephaly, short stature, and a movement disorder. Functional studies performed in HEK293T cell lines and fibroblasts and lymphoblastoid cells derived from 4 unrelated individuals showed impairment of the TTT complex and of mTOR pathway activity which is improved by treatment with Rapamycin. Our data delineate a TTI1-related neurodevelopmental disorder and expand the group of disorders related to the TTT complex

    PLS3 missense variants affecting the actin-binding domains cause X-linked congenital diaphragmatic hernia and body-wall defects.

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    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a relatively common and genetically heterogeneous structural birth defect associated with high mortality and morbidity. We describe eight unrelated families with an X-linked condition characterized by diaphragm defects, variable anterior body-wall anomalies, and/or facial dysmorphism. Using linkage analysis and exome or genome sequencing, we found that missense variants in plastin 3 (PLS3), a gene encoding an actin bundling protein, co-segregate with disease in all families. Loss-of-function variants in PLS3 have been previously associated with X-linked osteoporosis (MIM: 300910), so we used in silico protein modeling and a mouse model to address these seemingly disparate clinical phenotypes. The missense variants in individuals with CDH are located within the actin-binding domains of the protein but are not predicted to affect protein structure, whereas the variants in individuals with osteoporosis are predicted to result in loss of function. A mouse knockin model of a variant identified in one of the CDH-affected families, c.1497G\u3eC (p.Trp499Cys), shows partial perinatal lethality and recapitulates the key findings of the human phenotype, including diaphragm and abdominal-wall defects. Both the mouse model and one adult human male with a CDH-associated PLS3 variant were observed to have increased rather than decreased bone mineral density. Together, these clinical and functional data in humans and mice reveal that specific missense variants affecting the actin-binding domains of PLS3 might have a gain-of-function effect and cause a Mendelian congenital disorder

    Bi-allelic TTI1 variants cause an autosomal-recessive neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly.

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    Telomere maintenance 2 (TELO2), Tel2 interacting protein 2 (TTI2), and Tel2 interacting protein 1 (TTI1) are the three components of the conserved Triple T (TTT) complex that modulates activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKKs), including mTOR, ATM, and ATR, by regulating the assembly of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). The TTT complex is essential for the expression, maturation, and stability of ATM and ATR in response to DNA damage. TELO2- and TTI2-related bi-allelic autosomal-recessive (AR) encephalopathies have been described in individuals with moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID), short stature, postnatal microcephaly, and a movement disorder (in the case of variants within TELO2). We present clinical, genomic, and functional data from 11 individuals in 9 unrelated families with bi-allelic variants in TTI1. All present with ID, and most with microcephaly, short stature, and a movement disorder. Functional studies performed in HEK293T cell lines and fibroblasts and lymphoblastoid cells derived from 4 unrelated individuals showed impairment of the TTT complex and of mTOR pathway activity which is improved by treatment with Rapamycin. Our data delineate a TTI1-related neurodevelopmental disorder and expand the group of disorders related to the TTT complex

    SRSF1 haploinsufficiency is responsible for a syndromic developmental disorder associated with intellectual disability

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    : SRSF1 (also known as ASF/SF2) is a non-small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (non-snRNP) that belongs to the arginine/serine (R/S) domain family. It recognizes and binds to mRNA, regulating both constitutive and alternative splicing. The complete loss of this proto-oncogene in mice is embryonically lethal. Through international data sharing, we identified 17 individuals (10 females and 7 males) with a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) with heterozygous germline SRSF1 variants, mostly de novo, including three frameshift variants, three nonsense variants, seven missense variants, and two microdeletions within region 17q22 encompassing SRSF1. Only in one family, the de novo origin could not be established. All individuals featured a recurrent phenotype including developmental delay and intellectual disability (DD/ID), hypotonia, neurobehavioral problems, with variable skeletal (66.7%) and cardiac (46%) anomalies. To investigate the functional consequences of SRSF1 variants, we performed in silico structural modeling, developed an in vivo splicing assay in Drosophila, and carried out episignature analysis in blood-derived DNA from affected individuals. We found that all loss-of-function and 5 out of 7 missense variants were pathogenic, leading to a loss of SRSF1 splicing activity in Drosophila, correlating with a detectable and specific DNA methylation episignature. In addition, our orthogonal in silico, in vivo, and epigenetics analyses enabled the separation of clearly pathogenic missense variants from those with uncertain significance. Overall, these results indicated that haploinsufficiency of SRSF1 is responsible for a syndromic NDD with ID due to a partial loss of SRSF1-mediated splicing activity

    Bi-allelic ACBD6 variants lead to a neurodevelopmental syndrome with progressive and complex movement disorders

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Oxford University Press via the DOI in this recordData availability: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author, upon reasonable request. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE24 partner repository with the dataset identifiers PXD024957 (YnMyr chemical proteomics in human cells), PXD043676 (YnMyr chemical proteomics in zebrafish), PXD043679 (zebrafish whole proteome), PXD043677 (YnMyr chemical proteomics in X. tropicalis) and PXD043680 (X. tropicalis whole proteome).The acyl-CoA-binding domain-containing protein 6 (ACBD6) is ubiquitously expressed, plays a role in the acylation of lipids and proteins, and regulates the N-myristoylation of proteins via N-myristoyltransferase enzymes (NMTs). However, its precise function in cells is still unclear, as is the consequence of ACBD6 defects on human pathophysiology. Utilizing exome sequencing and extensive international data sharing efforts, we identified 45 affected individuals from 28 unrelated families (consanguinity 93%) with bi-allelic pathogenic, predominantly loss-of-function (18/20) variants in ACBD6. We generated zebrafish and Xenopus tropicalis acbd6 knockouts by CRISPR/Cas9 and characterized the role of ACBD6 on protein N-myristoylation with YnMyr chemical proteomics in the model organisms and human cells, with the latter also being subjected further to ACBD6 peroxisomal localization studies. The affected individuals (23 males and 22 females), with ages ranging from 1 to 50 years old, typically present with a complex and progressive disease involving moderate-to-severe global developmental delay/intellectual disability (100%) with significant expressive language impairment (98%), movement disorders (97%), facial dysmorphism (95%), and mild cerebellar ataxia (85%) associated with gait impairment (94%), limb spasticity/hypertonia (76%), oculomotor (71%) and behavioural abnormalities (65%), overweight (59%), microcephaly (39%) and epilepsy (33%). The most conspicuous and common movement disorder was dystonia (94%), frequently leading to early-onset progressive postural deformities (97%), limb dystonia (55%), and cervical dystonia (31%). A jerky tremor in the upper limbs (63%), a mild head tremor (59%), parkinsonism/hypokinesia developing with advancing age (32%), and simple motor and vocal tics were among other frequent movement disorders. Midline brain malformations including corpus callosum abnormalities (70%), hypoplasia/agenesis of the anterior commissure (66%), short midbrain and small inferior cerebellar vermis (38% each), as well as hypertrophy of the clava (24%) were common neuroimaging findings. acbd6-deficient zebrafish and Xenopus models effectively recapitulated many clinical phenotypes reported in patients including movement disorders, progressive neuromotor impairment, seizures, microcephaly, craniofacial dysmorphism, and midbrain defects accompanied by developmental delay with increased mortality over time. Unlike ACBD5, ACBD6 did not show a peroxisomal localisation and ACBD6-deficiency was not associated with altered peroxisomal parameters in patient fibroblasts. Significant differences in YnMyr-labelling were observed for 68 co- and 18 post-translationally N-myristoylated proteins in patient-derived fibroblasts. N-Myristoylation was similarly affected in acbd6-deficient zebrafish and Xenopus tropicalis models, including Fus, Marcks, and Chchd-related proteins implicated in neurological diseases. The present study provides evidence that bi-allelic pathogenic variants in ACBD6 lead to a distinct neurodevelopmental syndrome accompanied by complex and progressive cognitive and movement disorders

    The clinical and genetic spectrum of autosomal-recessive TOR1A-related disorders.

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    In the field of rare diseases, progress in molecular diagnostics led to the recognition that variants linked to autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative diseases of later onset can, in the context of biallelic inheritance, cause devastating neurodevelopmental disorders and infantile or childhood-onset neurodegeneration. TOR1A-associated arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 5 (AMC5) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder arising from biallelic variants in TOR1A, a gene that in the heterozygous state is associated with torsion dystonia-1 (DYT1 or DYT-TOR1A), an early-onset dystonia with reduced penetrance. While 15 individuals with AMC5-TOR1A have been reported (less than 10 in detail), a systematic investigation of the full disease-associated spectrum has not been conducted. Here, we assess the clinical, radiological and molecular characteristics of 57 individuals from 40 families with biallelic variants in TOR1A. Median age at last follow-up was 3 years (0-24 years). Most individuals presented with severe congenital flexion contractures (95%) and variable developmental delay (79%). Motor symptoms were reported in 79% and included lower limb spasticity and pyramidal signs, as well as gait disturbances. Facial dysmorphism was an integral part of the phenotype, with key features being a broad/full nasal tip, narrowing of the forehead and full cheeks. Analysis of disease-associated manifestations delineated a phenotypic spectrum ranging from normal cognition and mild gait disturbance to congenital arthrogryposis, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, absent speech and inability to walk. In a subset, the presentation was consistent with foetal akinesia deformation sequence with severe intrauterine abnormalities. Survival was 71%, with higher mortality in males. Death occurred at a median age of 1.2 months (1 week-9 years), due to respiratory failure, cardiac arrest or sepsis. Analysis of brain MRI studies identified non-specific neuroimaging features, including a hypoplastic corpus callosum (72%), foci of signal abnormality in the subcortical and periventricular white matter (55%), diffuse white matter volume loss (45%), mega cisterna magna (36%) and arachnoid cysts (27%). The molecular spectrum included 22 distinct variants, defining a mutational hotspot in the C-terminal domain of the Torsin-1A protein. Genotype-phenotype analysis revealed an association of missense variants in the 3-helix bundle domain to an attenuated phenotype, while missense variants near the Walker A/B motif as well as biallelic truncating variants were linked to early death. In summary, this systematic cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort of individuals with biallelic TOR1A variants across a wide age-range delineates the clinical and genetic spectrum of TOR1A-related autosomal-recessive disease and highlights potential predictors for disease severity and survival
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