49 research outputs found

    The Saharan convective boundary layer structure over large scale surface heterogeneity: A large eddy simulation study

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    Extreme atmospheric and surface conditions over the vast Saharan desert result in the development of one of the deepest atmospheric boundary layers (Saharan Atmospheric Boundary Layer, SABL) on the planet. The land cover in the Sahara mainly consists of wide interchanging areas of stony and sandy desert intercepted by narrower bare rock formations. Significant changes in surface albedo, surface temperature, turbulence fluxes and wind speed have been observed with remote measurement platforms like aircraft and satellites. This was a motivation to simulate the convective boundary layer (CBL) that develops over the heterogeneous Saharan surface with a two-way coupled system of a large eddy simulation code (LES) and a land surface model (LSM). Initial and boundary conditions are provided by airborne observations and mesoscale atmospheric simulations. In order to investigate the effect of surface heterogeneity on the vertical structure of the SABL, a large scale (larger than 10 km) idealized warm surface anomaly is simulated and analyzed. A land strip with a low surface albedo produces almost doubled fluxes in density and stronger convergence near the ground than over the surrounding brighter surfaces. First and second order turbulence statistics reveal that strong thermals penetrate the inversion layer above the CBL producing a vigorous exchange between unstable and overlying stable air. Furthermore, a convective internal boundary layer (CIBL) is formed over the warm strip. The downwind development of the CIBL is studied and CBL depth equations from literature are revised. The average turbulent structure of the SABL reveals flow changes locally and downwind of the surface heterogeneity (strip), which can be more significant than the dispersive fluxes due to surface heterogeneity, and may have an important effect on processes such as dust uplift and its long range transport that influence weather and climate globally. © 2020 Elsevier B.V

    Trace Mineral Intake and Deficiencies in Older Adults Living in the Community and Institutions: A Systematic Review

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    © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. The global population is ageing with many older adults suffering from age-related malnutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies. Adequate nutrient intake is vital to enable older adults to continue living independently and delay their institutionalisation, as well as to prevent deterioration of health status in those living in institutions. This systematic review investigated the insufficiency of trace minerals in older adults living independently and in institutions. We examined 28 studies following a cross-sectional or cohort design, including 7203 older adults (≥60) living independently in 13 Western countries and 2036 living in institutions in seven Western countries. The estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-off point method was used to calculate percentage insufficiency for eight trace minerals using extracted mean and standard deviation values. Zinc deficiency was observed in 31% of community-based women and 49% of men. This was higher for those in institutional care (50% and 66%, respectively). Selenium intakes were similarly compromised with deficiency in 49% women and 37% men in the community and 44% women and 27% men in institutions. We additionally found significant proportions of both populations showing insufficiency for iron, iodine and copper. This paper identifies consistent nutritional insufficiency for selenium, zinc, iodine and copper in older adults

    Aerosol absorption over the Aegean Sea under northern summer winds

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    In this modelling study, the absorption influence on radiation, apart from scattering, is studied above the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean) under a typical warm 13-day period with northern winds, transporting polluted air masses. The simulated (WRF-Chem) forcing caused by the total absorption is estimated along with black carbon (BC), dust, and sea salt contributions, 1.3, 1.2, 0.1 and nearly zero W m−2, accordingly. As dust and sea salt influence is negligible, the main focus is on BC. BC absorption reduces downward shortwave irradiance reaching the ground by up to 5.2 W m−2 and the upward part by up to 1.7 W m−2. The downward and the upward longwave irradiances are augmented by up to 2.3 and 1.2 W m−2, accordingly. Even though the cloud formation is not favoured during the study period, BC absorption reduces overall the cloud water mixing ratio by 10% (semi-direct effect). However, during specific days and over limited cloudy areas, the semi-direct effect reduces low level clouds up to 20% while in case of higher clouds the reduction reaches up to ~29%. In order to examine the physical mechanisms below semi-direct effect, all modelled heating rates are analysed. Radiation direct absorption increases the air temperature with a rate up to 0.2 K day−1, with an exception inside the surface layer, where unexpectedly longwave cooling prevails. The heating of the surface layer is mainly attributed to the advection process, as more heated air masses are transported over the Aegean Sea. © 2020 Elsevier Lt

    Atmospheric Optical Turbulence and Inertial Subrange Spectra Over the Ocean

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    OSA Optical Sensors and Sensing Congress 2020 (AIS, LACSEA, SENSORS, ES, pcAOP)The article of record as published may be found at https://doi.org/10.1364/PCAOP.2020.PM1D.4A comprehensive dataset was collected in a recent field campaign to characterize the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). Results of turbulence spectra are presented here to show the complications in estimating C2n in the MABL

    An Integrated Pipeline for Combining in vitro Data and Mathematical Models Using a Bayesian Parameter Inference Approach to Characterize Spatio-temporal Chemokine Gradient Formation

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    All protective and pathogenic immune and inflammatory responses rely heavily on leukocyte migration and localization. Chemokines are secreted chemoattractants that orchestrate the positioning and migration of leukocytes through concentration gradients. The mechanisms underlying chemokine gradient establishment and control include physical as well as biological phenomena. Mathematical models offer the potential to both understand this complexity and suggest interventions to modulate immune function. Constructing models that have powerful predictive capability relies on experimental data to estimate model parameters accurately, but even with a reductionist approach, most experiments include multiple cell types, competing interdependent processes and considerable uncertainty. Therefore, we propose the use of reduced modelling and experimental frameworks in complement, to minimize the number of parameters to be estimated. We present a Bayesian optimization framework that accounts for advection and diffusion of a chemokine surrogate and the chemokine CCL19, transport processes that are known to contribute to the establishment of spatio-temporal chemokine gradients. Three examples are provided that demonstrate the estimation of the governing parameters as well as the underlying uncertainty.This study demonstrates how a synergistic approach between experimental and computational modelling benefits from the Bayesian approach to provide a robust analysis of chemokine transport. It provides a building block for a larger research effort to gain holistic insight and generate novel and testable hypotheses in chemokine biology and leukocyte trafficking

    Latest LAPS developments Assimilating remote sensing data and its impact on LAPS predictability

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    Presentación realizada en la 3rd European Nowcasting Conference, celebrada en la sede central de AEMET en Madrid del 24 al 26 de abril de 2019

    An integrated approach of ground and aerial observations in flash flood disaster investigations. The case of the 2017 Mandra flash flood in Greece

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    On November 15, 2017, a high intensity convective storm, reaching 300 mm in 13 h in the core zone of the event, hit the western part of the region of Attica in Greece, causing a catastrophic flash flood in the town of Mandra and a tragic loss of 24 people, making it the most deadly flood in the country, in a period of 40 years. The research team surveyed the area during and after the flood using a combination of systematic ground and aerial observations with the aid of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), aiming to reconstruct the basic physical and hydrological characteristics of the flood and its impacts. The analysis produced detailed flood extent and depth maps that provided a comprehensive description of the physical characteristics of floodwaters across the inundated area. Peak discharge was estimated, using a UAV-derived digital surface model, at two locations, corresponding to the two main tributaries and indicated an impressive hydrological response, between 9 and 10 m3/s/km2. Impact analysis on the basis of these observations showed an extensive diversity, including effects in geomorphology, vegetation, buildings, infrastructure and human population. Analysis of meteorological, botanical and geomorphological evidence lead to the conclusion that this flash flood was a very rare event. Results demonstrate that the combination of aerial and ground observations allow an enhanced and holistic reconstruction of a flash flood and its impacts with high accuracy, leading to the conclusion that the approach used has a significant potential in many aspects of flood disaster investigations. © 2018 Elsevier Lt

    From hygroscopic aerosols to cloud droplets: The HygrA-CD campaign in the Athens basin -- An overview

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    The international experimental campaign Hygroscopic Aerosols to Cloud Droplets (HygrA-CD), organized in the Greater Athens Area (GAA), Greece from 15 May to 22 June 2014, aimed to study the physico-chemical properties of aerosols and their impact on the formation of clouds in the convective Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). We found that under continental (W-NW-N) and Etesian (NE) synoptic wind flow and with a deep moist PBL (~ 2-2.5 km height), mixed hygroscopic (anthropogenic, biomass burning and marine) particles arrive over the GAA, and contribute to the formation of convective non-precipitating PBL clouds (of ~ 16-20 μm mean diameter) with vertical extent up to 500 m. Under these conditions, high updraft velocities (1-2 m s− 1) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations (~ 2000 cm− 3 at 1% supersaturation), generated clouds with an estimated cloud droplet number of ~ 600 cm− 3. Under Saharan wind flow conditions (S-SW) a shallow PBL (< 1-1.2 km height) develops, leading to much higher CCN concentrations (~ 3500-5000 cm− 3 at 1% supersaturation) near the ground; updraft velocities, however, were significantly lower, with an estimated maximum cloud droplet number of ~ 200 cm− 3 and without observed significant PBL cloud formation. The largest contribution to cloud droplet number variance is attributed to the updraft velocity variability, followed by variances in aerosol number concentration. © 2016 Elsevier B.V

    Solar Irradiance Prediction over the Aegean Sea: Shortwave Parameterization Schemes and Aerosol Radiation Feedback

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    In order to study the solar irradiance’s prediction over Greece, WRF-Chem model is applied, using three shortwave radiation parameterization schemes: Dudhia, Goddard and RRTMG which simulate differently the aerosol-radiation interaction. This study focuses on a typical summertime wind pattern, the Etesian outbreaks, during which polluted air masses are transported in Greek territory and therefore they affect incoming solar irradiance. The results indicate that schemes overall overestimate solar irradiance reaching the ground; Dudhia scheme by 9%, RRTMG by 13%, and Goddard by 17%. The performance of all schemes is improved when the aerosol-radiation interaction is considered at least by 1.5%, while local temperature changes, by up to 1.5 degrees, are noticed

    Morphological and genetic characterisation of the root system architecture of selected barley recombinant chromosome substitution lines using an integrated phenotyping approach

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    Discoveries on the genetics of resource acquisition efficiency are limited by the ability to measure plant roots in sufficient number and with adequate genotypic variability. This paper presents a root phenotyping study that explores ways to combine live imaging and computer algorithms for model-based extraction of root growth parameters. The study is based on a subset of barley Recombinant Chromosome Substitution Lines (RCSLs) and a combinatorial approach was designed for fast identification of the regions of the genome that contribute the most to variations in root system architecture (RSA). Results showed there was a strong genotypic variation in root growth parameters within the set of genotypes studied. The chromosomal regions associated with primary root growth differed from the regions of the genome associated with changes in lateral root growth. The concepts presented here are discussed in the context of identifying root QTL and its potential to assist breeding for novel crops with improved root systems
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