6,490 research outputs found

    Deep solar PV refiner : a detail-oriented deep learning network for refined segmentation of photovoltaic areas from satellite imagery

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    202305 bcvcVersion of RecordRGCOthersStrategic Hiring Scheme at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University; Projects of RILS at the Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityPublishe

    Clinical associations and prognostic value of MRI-visible perivascular spaces in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA: a pooled analysis

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    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Visible perivascular spaces are an MRI marker of cerebral small vessel disease and might predict future stroke. However, results from existing studies vary. We aimed to clarify this through a large collaborative multicenter analysis. METHODS: We pooled individual patient data from a consortium of prospective cohort studies. Participants had recent ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), underwent baseline MRI, and were followed up for ischemic stroke and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Perivascular spaces in the basal ganglia (BGPVS) and perivascular spaces in the centrum semiovale (CSOPVS) were rated locally using a validated visual scale. We investigated clinical and radiologic associations cross-sectionally using multinomial logistic regression and prospective associations with ischemic stroke and ICH using Cox regression. RESULTS: We included 7,778 participants (mean age 70.6 years; 42.7% female) from 16 studies, followed up for a median of 1.44 years. Eighty ICH and 424 ischemic strokes occurred. BGPVS were associated with increasing age, hypertension, previous ischemic stroke, previous ICH, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities. CSOPVS showed consistently weaker associations. Prospectively, after adjusting for potential confounders including cerebral microbleeds, increasing BGPVS burden was independently associated with future ischemic stroke (versus 0-10 BGPVS, 11-20 BGPVS: HR 1.19, 95% CI 0.93-1.53; 21+ BGPVS: HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.10-2.06; = 0.040). Higher BGPVS burden was associated with increased ICH risk in univariable analysis, but not in adjusted analyses. CSOPVS were not significantly associated with either outcome. DISCUSSION: In patients with ischemic stroke or TIA, increasing BGPVS burden is associated with more severe cerebral small vessel disease and higher ischemic stroke risk. Neither BGPVS nor CSOPVS were independently associated with future ICH

    Parallel synaptic design of ferroelectric tunnel junctions for neuromorphic computing

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    We propose a novel synaptic design of more efficient neuromorphic edge-computing with substantially improved linearity and extremely low variability. Specifically, a parallel arrangement of ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJ) with an incremental pulsing scheme provides a great improvement in linearity for synaptic weight updating by averaging weight update rates of multiple devices. To enable such design with FTJ building blocks, we have demonstrated the lowest reported variability: σ / μ = 0.036 for cycle to cycle and σ / μ = 0.032 for device among six dies across an 8 inch wafer. With such devices, we further show improved synaptic performance and pattern recognition accuracy through experiments combined with simulations

    SPLUS J142445.34-254247.1: An R-Process Enhanced, Actinide-Boost, Extremely Metal-Poor star observed with GHOST

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    We report on the chemo-dynamical analysis of SPLUS J142445.34-254247.1, an extremely metal-poor halo star enhanced in elements formed by the rapid neutron-capture process. This star was first selected as a metal-poor candidate from its narrow-band S-PLUS photometry and followed up spectroscopically in medium-resolution with Gemini South/GMOS, which confirmed its low-metallicity status. High-resolution spectroscopy was gathered with GHOST at Gemini South, allowing for the determination of chemical abundances for 36 elements, from carbon to thorium. At [Fe/H]=-3.39, SPLUS J1424-2542 is one of the lowest metallicity stars with measured Th and has the highest logeps(Th/Eu) observed to date, making it part of the "actinide-boost" category of r-process enhanced stars. The analysis presented here suggests that the gas cloud from which SPLUS J1424-2542 was formed must have been enriched by at least two progenitor populations. The light-element (Z<=30) abundance pattern is consistent with the yields from a supernova explosion of metal-free stars with 11.3-13.4 Msun, and the heavy-element (Z>=38) abundance pattern can be reproduced by the yields from a neutron star merger (1.66Msun and 1.27Msun) event. A kinematical analysis also reveals that SPLUS J1424-2542 is a low-mass, old halo star with a likely in-situ origin, not associated with any known early merger events in the Milky Way.Comment: 26 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication on Ap

    Venous Thromboembolism: Assessing Risk Factors in Elective Foot and Ankle Surgery Patients

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    Category: Midfoot/Forefoot; Ankle Introduction/Purpose: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) after foot and ankle surgery is a significant concern for patients and surgeons. The absence of guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in elective procedures underscores the importance of understanding risk factors. This study aimed to identify key risk factors of VTE in patients who underwent elective foot and ankle surgery, analyzing the rates based on the anatomical location of the surgery and the post-operative period. Methods: Data was collected from IBM MarketScan Database (2009-2019) for patients >18y without prior VTE who underwent elective foot/ankle surgery. Patients were divided into three groups based on region of surgery (forefoot, mid/hindfoot, lower leg/ankle), and VTE incidence was recorded 30- and 90-days post-surgery. Risk factors for VTE were identified through multivariate logistical regression analysis. Results: Among the 301,256 patients who underwent elective foot and ankle surgeries, the overall incidence of VTE within 90 days was 0.95%. The findings revealed that 31.8% of VTE incidents occurred within the first two weeks after surgery, and 29.2% still occurred after 6 weeks. An analysis of the anatomical region of surgery demonstrated that the lowest rate of VTE was amongst patients undergoing forefoot surgery (0.70%). There was a higher incidence and risk for VTE in patients undergoing midfoot/hindfoot surgery (1.22%, OR = 1.75) and lower leg/ankle surgery (1.76%, OR= 2.53). Additional risk factors for VTE included thrombophilia (OR = 5.06), male sex (OR = 1.43), increasing age (OR > 1.25), and a high Charlson Comorbidity Index (OR < 0.82 for scores < 5). Conclusion: This study identifies the incidence and timing for VTE after elective foot and ankle surgery. Furthermore, this study defines the risk factors associated with increased odds of VTE after elective foot and ankle surgeries. These findings are helpful in educating patients about a continued risk for VTE throughout the 90-day postoperative period. These results can also be utilized to stratify patients who need thromboprophylaxis based on the individual risk level

    sj-tif-1-jop-10.1177_02698811231167852 – Supplemental material for A phase 1 randomized, placebo-controlled study to investigate potential interactions between ASP8062, a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, and morphine in recreational opioid users

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    Supplemental material, sj-tif-1-jop-10.1177_02698811231167852 for A phase 1 randomized, placebo-controlled study to investigate potential interactions between ASP8062, a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, and morphine in recreational opioid users by Mototsugu Ito, Mark Walzer, Mary Beth Blauwet, Anna Spence, Nakyo Heo, Debra Kelsh, Paul Blahunka, Jay Erdman, Mohamad Nour Alsharif and Gerard J Marek in Journal of Psychopharmacology</p

    Modeling Concentration-dependent Phase Separation Processes Involving Peptides and RNA via Residue-Based Coarse-Graining

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    Biomolecular condensation, especially liquid–liquid phase separation, is an important physical process with relevance for a number of different aspects of biological functions. Key questions of what drives such condensation, especially in terms of molecular composition, can be addressed via computer simulations, but the development of computationally efficient yet physically realistic models has been challenging. Here, the coarse-grained model COCOMO is introduced that balances the polymer behavior of peptides and RNA chains with their propensity to phase separate as a function of composition and concentration. COCOMO is a residue-based model that combines bonded terms with short- and long-range terms, including a Debye–Hückel solvation term. The model is highly predictive of experimental data on phase-separating model systems. It is also computationally efficient and can reach the spatial and temporal scales on which biomolecular condensation is observed with moderate computational resources
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