16,543 research outputs found

    Four Scottish indulgences at Sens

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    English interest in the great Cistercian abbey of Pontigny was stimulated by the exiles there of two archbishops of Canterbury, Thomas Becket and Stephen Langton.1 As archbishops of Canterbury, Langton and Edmund of Abingdon made gifts to Pontigny abbey in consideration of the welcome given to Becket.2 Edmund did not die at Pontigny, but was a confrater of the community, and the abbot claimed the body, asserting that Edmund had expressed a wish to be buried there. The process of canonisation was rapid.3 After Edmund's canonisation, Henry III sent a chasuble and a chalice for the first celebration of the feast, and granted money to maintain four candles round the saint's shrine.4 In 1254, en route from Gascony to meet Louis IX in Chartres and Paris,5 Henry visited Pontigny, as his brother Richard of Cornwall, who seems to have pressed for canonisation, had done in 1247.6 Archbishop Boniface of Canterbury ordered the celebration of the feast to be observed throughout his province.7 Pope Alexander IV granted a dispensation to allow Englishwomen to enter the precinct of Pontigny abbey on the feast of the translation of the relics of St Edmund8 (women were normally forbidden to enter a Cistercian monastery). Matthew Paris, the greatest English chronicler of the age, wrote a life of the saint.9 English interest continued into the fourteenth century. In 1331 an English priest was given a licence to visit the shrine,10 but it seems likely that the Hundred Years’ War made pilgrimage to Pontigny difficult.11 The indulgences preserved by the abbey reveal an interest in the shrine throughout the Western Church, granted as they were by prelates from Tortosa to Livonia and Estonia, and from Messina to Lübeck.1

    Immune cells and preterm labour:do invariant NKT cells hold the key?

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    We have developed our original made-to-measure (M2M) algorithm, PRIMAL, with the aim of modelling the Galactic disc from upcoming Gaia data. From a Milky Way like N-body disc galaxy simulation, we have created mock Gaia data using M0III stars as tracers, taking into account extinction and the expected Gaia errors. In PRIMAL, observables calculated from the N-body model are compared with the target stars, at the position of the target stars. Using PRIMAL, the masses of the N-body model particles are changed to reproduce the target mock data, and the gravitational potential is automatically adjusted by the changing mass of the model particles. We have also adopted a new resampling scheme for the model particles to keep the mass resolution of the N-body model relatively constant. We have applied PRIMAL to this mock Gaia data and we show that PRIMAL can recover the structure and kinematics of a Milky Way like barred spiral disc, along with the apparent bar structure and pattern speed of the bar despite the galactic extinction and the observational errors

    Shear-flow transition: the basin boundary

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    The structure of the basin of attraction of a stable equilibrium point is investigated for a dynamical system (W97) often used to model transition to turbulence in shear flows. The basin boundary contains not only an equilibrium point Xlb but also a periodic orbit P, and it is the latter that mediates the transition. Orbits starting near Xlb relaminarize. We offer evidence that this is due to the extreme narrowness of the region complementary to basin of attraction in that part of phase space near Xlb. This leads to a proposal for interpreting the 'edge of chaos' in terms of more familiar invariant sets.Comment: 11 pages; submitted for publication in Nonlinearit

    Assessment of semicircular canal function. Part 1 - Measurements of subjective effects produced by triangular waveforms of angular velocity

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    Nystagmus and sensation of rotation from semicircular canal stimulation by triangular waveforms of angular velocit

    Cargo/Logistics Airlift System Study (CLASS), Volume 2

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    Air containerization is discussed in terms of lower freight rates, size and pallet limitations, refrigeration, backhaul of empties, and ownership. It is concluded that there is a need for an advance air cargo system as indicated by the industry/transportation case studies, and a stimulation of the air cargo would result in freight rate reductions

    Cargo/Logistics Airlift System Study (CLASS), Volume 1

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    Current and advanced air cargo systems are evaluated using industrial and consumer statistics. Market and commodity characteristics that influence the use of the air mode are discussed along with a comparison of air and surface mode on typical routes. Results of on-site surveys of cargo processing facilities at airports are presented, and institutional controls and influences on air cargo operations are considered

    Method and Apparatus for In-Situ Health Monitoring of Solar Cells in Space

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    Some embodiments of the present invention describe an apparatus that includes an oscillator, a ramp generator, and an inverter. The apparatus includes an oscillator, an inverter, and a ramp generator. The oscillator is configured to generate a waveform comprising a low time and a high time. The inverter is configured to receive the waveform generated by the oscillator, and invert the waveform. The ramp generator configured to increase a gate control voltage of a transistor connected to a solar cell, and rapidly decrease the gate control voltage of the transistor. During the low time of the waveform, a measurement of a current and a voltage of the solar cell is performed as the current and voltage of the solar cell are transmitted through a first channel and to a second channel. During the high time of the waveform, a measurement of a current of a shorted cell and a voltage reference is performed as the current of the shorted cell and the voltage reference are transmitted through the first channel and the second channel

    Cargo/Logistics Airlift System Study (CLASS), Executive Summary

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    The current air cargo system is analyzed along with advanced air cargo systems studies. A forecast of advanced air cargo system demand is presented with cost estimates. It is concluded that there is a need for a dedicated advance air cargo system, and with application of advanced technology, reductions of 45% in air freight rates may be achieved

    Star formation in galaxy mergers with realistic models of stellar feedback and the interstellar medium

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    We use hydrodynamic simulations with detailed, explicit models for stellar feedback to study galaxy mergers. These high-resolution (∼1 pc) simulations follow the formation and destruction of individual giant molecular clouds (GMC) and star clusters. We find that the final starburst is dominated by in situ star formation, fuelled by gas which flows inwards due to global torques. The resulting high gas density results in rapid star formation. The gas is self-gravitating, and forms massive (≲10¹⁰ M_⊙) GMC and subsequently super star clusters (with masses up to 10⁸ M_⊙). However, in contrast to some recent simulations, the bulk of new stars which eventually form the central bulge are not born in super-clusters which then sink to the centre of the galaxy. This is because feedback efficiently disperses GMC after they turn several per cent of their mass into stars. In other words, most of the mass that reaches the nucleus does so in the form of gas. The Kennicutt–Schmidt law emerges naturally as a consequence of feedback balancing gravitational collapse, independent of the small-scale star formation microphysics. The same mechanisms that drive this relation in isolated galaxies, in particular radiation pressure from infrared photons, extend, with no fine-tuning, over seven decades in star formation rate (SFR) to regulate star formation in the most extreme starburst systems with densities ≳10⁴ M_⊙ pc⁻². This feedback also drives super-winds with large mass-loss rates; however, a significant fraction of the wind material falls back on to the discs at later times, leading to higher post-starburst SFRs in the presence of stellar feedback. This suggests that strong active galactic nucleus feedback may be required to explain the sharp cut-offs in SFR that are observed in post-merger galaxies. We compare the results to those from simulations with no explicit resolution of GMC or feedback [‘effective equation-of-state’ (EOS) models]. We find that global galaxy properties are similar between EOS and resolved-feedback models. The relic structure and mass profile, and the total mass of stars formed in the nuclear starburst are quite similar, as is the morphological structure during and after mergers (tails, bridges, etc.). Disc survival in sufficiently gas rich mergers is similar in the two cases, and the new models follow the same scalings as derived for the efficiency of disc re-formation after a merger as derived from previous work with the simplified EOS models. While the global galaxy properties are similar between EOS and feedback models, subgalaxy-scale properties and the SFRs can be quite different: the more detailed models exhibit significantly higher star formation in tails and bridges (especially in shocks), and allow us to resolve the formation of super star clusters. In the new models, the star formation is more strongly time-variable and drops more sharply between close passages. The instantaneous burst enhancement can be higher or lower, depending on the details of the orbit and initial structural properties of the galaxies; first-passage bursts are more sensitive to these details than those at the final coalescence

    Colloidal diffusion and hydrodynamic screening near boundaries

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    The hydrodynamic interactions between colloidal particles in small ensembles are measured at varying distances from a no-slip surface over a range of inter-particle separations. The diffusion tensor for motion parallel to the wall of each ensemble is calculated by analyzing thousands of particle trajectories generated by blinking holographic optical tweezers and by dynamic simulation. The Stokesian Dynamics simulations predict similar particle dynamics. By separating the dynamics into three classes of modes: self, relative and collective diffusion, we observe qualitatively different behavior depending on the relative magnitudes of the distance of the ensemble from the wall and the inter-particle separation. A simple picture of the pair-hydrodynamic interactions is developed, while many-body-hydrodynamic interactions give rise to more complicated behavior. The results demonstrate that the effect of many-body hydrodynamic interactions in the presence of a wall is much richer than the single particle behavior and that the multiple-particle behavior cannot be simply predicted by a superposition of pair interactions