21 research outputs found

    Genetic meta-analysis of diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease identifies new risk loci and implicates Aβ, tau, immunity and lipid processing

    No full text
    Risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals). We confirm 20 previous LOAD risk loci and identify five new genome-wide loci (IQCK, ACE, ADAM10, ADAMTS1, and WWOX), two of which (ADAM10, ACE) were identified in a recent genome-wide association (GWAS)-by-familial-proxy of Alzheimer’s or dementia. Fine-mapping of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region confirms the neurological and immune-mediated disease haplotype HLA-DR15 as a risk factor for LOAD. Pathway analysis implicates immunity, lipid metabolism, tau binding proteins, and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism, showing that genetic variants affecting APP and Aβ processing are associated not only with early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease but also with LOAD. Analyses of risk genes and pathways show enrichment for rare variants (P = 1.32 × 10−7), indicating that additional rare variants remain to be identified. We also identify important genetic correlations between LOAD and traits such as family history of dementia and education

    Transneuronal propagation of mutant huntingtin contributes to non-cell autonomous pathology in neurons

    No full text
    In Huntington's disease (HD), whether transneuronal spreading of mutant huntingtin (mHTT) occurs and its contribution to non-cell autonomous damage in brain networks is largely unknown. We found mHTT spreading in three different neural network models: human neurons integrated in the neural network of organotypic brain slices of HD mouse model, an ex vivo corticostriatal slice model and the corticostriatal pathway in vivo. Transneuronal propagation of mHTT was blocked by two different botulinum neurotoxins, each known for specifically inactivating a single critical component of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. Moreover, healthy human neurons in HD mouse model brain slices displayed non-cell autonomous changes in morphological integrity that were more pronounced when these neurons bore mHTT aggregates. Altogether, our findings suggest that transneuronal propagation of mHTT might be an important and underestimated contributor to the pathophysiology of HD

    Meta-analysis of 74,046 individuals identifies 11 new susceptibility loci for Alzheimer's disease

    No full text

    Twenty-first century brain banking. Processing brains for research: the Columbia University methods

    Get PDF
    Carefully categorized postmortem human brains are crucial for research. The lack of generally accepted methods for processing human postmortem brains for research persists. Thus, brain banking is essential; however, it cannot be achieved at the cost of the teaching mission of the academic institution by routing brains away from residency programs, particularly when the autopsy rate is steadily decreasing. A consensus must be reached whereby a brain can be utilizable for diagnosis, research, and teaching. The best diagnostic categorization possible must be secured and the yield of samples for basic investigation maximized. This report focuses on integrated, novel methods currently applied at the New York Brain Bank, Columbia University, New York, which are designed to reach accurate neuropathological diagnosis, optimize the yield of samples, and process fresh-frozen samples suitable for a wide range of modern investigations. The brains donated for research are processed as soon as possible after death. The prosector must have a good command of the neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and the protocol. One half of each brain is immersed in formalin for performing the thorough neuropathologic evaluation, which is combined with the teaching task. The contralateral half is extensively dissected at the fresh state. The anatomical origin of each sample is recorded using the map of Brodmann for the cortical samples. The samples are frozen at −160°C, barcode labeled, and ready for immediate disbursement once categorized diagnostically. A rigorous organization of freezer space, coupled to an electronic tracking system with its attached software, fosters efficient access for retrieval within minutes of any specific frozen samples in storage. This report describes how this achievement is feasible with emphasis on the actual processing of brains donated for research

    Neurodegenerative diseases: model organisms, pathology and autophagy

    No full text