369 research outputs found

    Primary Production and Carbon Allocation in Creosotebush

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    The case of the football club Rosenborg in the Norwegian region Trøndelag: Insights from a regional – global organizational model emphasizing how improvisation can lead to outstanding results using insights from “total football” and “flow theory”

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    The Norwegian football club Rosenborg is used as the empirical setting in the article. Improvisation and good routines are the foundations for success in the soccer field is a finding in this piece of research. We link improvisation to “total football” and “flow theory as means to achieve high performance using a regional-global organizational model as our illustration. We focus at qualitative methods when interviewing the former coach Mr. Niels Arne Eggen and former top players. For this purpose we use thematic analysis and secondary sources to gain deep insights.publishedVersio

    Primary Production and Carbon Allocation in Creosotebush

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    Silicon Powder-Based Wafers for Low-Cost Photovoltaics: Laser Treatments and Nanowire Etching

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    In this study, laser-treated polycrystalline Si (pc-Si) wafers, fabricated by wire sawing of hot-pressed ingots sintered from Si powder, have been investigated. As-cut wafers and those with high-quality thin Si layers deposited on top of them by e-beam have been subjected to laser irradiation to clarify typical trends of structural modifications caused by laser treatments. Moreover, possibility to use laser-treated Si powder-based substrates for fabrication of advanced Si structures has been analysed. It is established that (i) Si powder-based wafers with thicknesses 180 μm can be fully (from the front to back side) or partly (subsurface region) remelted by a diode laser and grain sizes in laser-treated regions can be increased; (ii) a high-quality top layer can be fabricated by crystallization of an additional a-Si layer deposited by e-beam evaporation on top of the pc-Si; and (iii) silicon nanowires can be formed by metal-assisted wet chemical etching (MAWCE) of polished Si powder-based wafers and as-cut wafers irradiated with medium laser power, while a surface texturing on the as-cut pc-Si wafers occur, and no nanowires can form in the region subject to a liquid phase crystallization (LPC) caused by high-power laser treatments

    A Phase I Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of Electroporated HIV DNA with or without Interleukin 12 in Prime-Boost Combinations with an Ad35 HIV Vaccine in Healthy HIV-Seronegative African Adults.

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    Strategies to enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in humans include i) co-administration of molecular adjuvants, ii) intramuscular administration followed by in vivo electroporation (IM/EP) and/or iii) boosting with a different vaccine. Combining these strategies provided protection of macaques challenged with SIV; this clinical trial was designed to mimic the vaccine regimen in the SIV study.Seventy five healthy, HIV-seronegative adults were enrolled into a phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Multi-antigenic HIV (HIVMAG) plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccine alone or co-administered with pDNA encoding human Interleukin 12 (IL-12) (GENEVAX IL-12) given by IM/EP using the TriGrid Delivery System was tested in different prime-boost regimens with recombinant Ad35 HIV vaccine given IM.All local reactions but one were mild or moderate. Systemic reactions and unsolicited adverse events including laboratory abnormalities did not differ between vaccine and placebo recipients. No serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported. T cell and antibody response rates after HIVMAG (x3) prime-Ad35 (x1) boost were independent of IL-12, while the magnitude of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) ELISPOT responses was highest after HIVMAG (x3) without IL-12. The quality and phenotype of T cell responses shown by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) were similar between groups. Inhibition of HIV replication by autologous T cells was demonstrated after HIVMAG (x3) prime and was boosted after Ad35. HIV specific antibodies were detected only after Ad35 boost, although there was a priming effect with 3 doses of HIVMAG with or without IL-12. No anti-IL-12 antibodies were detected.The vaccines were safe, well tolerated and moderately immunogenic. Repeated administration IM/EP was well accepted. An adjuvant effect of co-administered plasmid IL-12 was not detected.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01496989

    Association Between Proportion of Nuclei With High Chromatin Entropy and Prognosis in Gynecological Cancers

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    Background: Nuclear texture analysis measuring differences in chromatin structure has provided prognostic biomarkers in several cancers. There is a need for improved cell-by-cell chromatin analysis to detect nuclei with highly disorganized chromatin. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for detecting nuclei with high chromatin entropy and to evaluate the association between the presence of such deviating nuclei and prognosis. Methods: A new texture-based biomarker that characterizes each cancer based on the proportion of high–chromatin entropy nuclei (<25% vs ≥25%) was developed on a discovery set of 175 uterine sarcomas. The prognostic impact of this biomarker was evaluated on a validation set of 179 uterine sarcomas, as well as on independent validation sets of 246 early-stage ovarian carcinomas and 791 endometrial carcinomas. More than 1 million images of nuclei stained for DNA were included in the study. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: An increased proportion of high–chromatin entropy nuclei was associated with poor clinical outcome. The biomarker predicted five-year overall survival for uterine sarcoma patients with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.43 to 2.84), time to recurrence for ovarian cancer patients (HR = 2.91, 95% CI = 1.74 to 4.88), and cancer-specific survival for endometrial cancer patients (HR = 3.74, 95% CI = 2.24 to 6.24). Chromatin entropy was an independent prognostic marker in multivariable analyses with clinicopathological parameters (HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.70, for sarcoma; HR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.01 to 2.90, for ovarian cancer; and HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.19 to 3.45, for endometrial cancer). Conclusions: A novel method detected high–chromatin entropy nuclei, and an increased proportion of such nuclei was associated with poor prognosis. Chromatin entropy supplemented existing prognostic markers in multivariable analyses of three gynecological cancer cohorts.publishedVersio

    Response of the photosynthetic apparatus to a flowering-inductive period by water stress in Citrus

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    The photosynthetic responses to a flowering-inductive water-stress period and recovery were studied and compared in two Citrus species. Under greenhouse conditions, Fino lemon and Owari satsuma trees were subjected to moderate (-2 MPa at predawn) and severe (-3 MPa) water stress levels and were re-watered after 60 days. Vegetative growth was inhibited during the stress assays, and strong defoliation levels were reported, especially in Fino lemon. In both species, bud sprouting was induced after re-watering. Flowers and vegetative shoots developed in Owari satsuma after a drought period, and the development was independent of the stress level. In Fino lemon, vegetative shoots and flowers were primarily formed after moderate and severe stress, respectively. The photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were reduced by water stress, and a marked increase in water-use efficiency at the moderate water deficit level was observed. Nevertheless, the photosynthetic apparatus was not damaged, since the maximum quantum yield, photosynthetic pigment concentrations and Rubisco level and activity did not change. Furthermore, the measured malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and peroxidase activity indicated that oxidative stress was not specifically triggered by water stress in our study. Therefore, the gas exchange, fluorescence and biochemical parameters suggested that diffusional limitations to photosynthesis predominated in both of the studied Citrus species, and explained the rapid recovery of the photosynthetic parameters after rehydration. The net CO 2 fixation rate and stomatal conductance were recovered within 24 h in Fino lemon, whereas 3 days were required in Owari satsuma. This suggests the presence of some metabolic limitations in the latter species. 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