5,874 research outputs found

    99P Nowotwory złośliwe żołądka. Analiza 4-letniego (1994–1998) materiału II Oddziału Chirurgii Onkologicznej WCO

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    Nowotwory złośliwe żołądka, a zwłaszcza rak tego narządu są nadal jednym z podstawowych problemów diagnostycznych i leczniczych każdego oddziału chirurgicznego, w tym także oddziałów chirurgii onkologicznej. W Polsce rak żołądka pod względem zachorowalności znajduje się u mężczyzn na 2 miejscu, a u kobiet na 7 miejscu. Zaś pod względem umieralności na 2 miejscu u mężczyzn i na 3 wśród kobiet. Dlatego też uważaliśmy za celowe podzielenie się spostrzeżeniami z analizy materiału klinicznego obejmującego 120 przypadków nowotworów złośliwych żołądka leczonych na II Oddziale Chirurgii Onkologicznej Wielkopolskiego Centrum Onkologii w latach 1994–1998.Celem pracy jest1.Charakterystyka postaci morfologicznych i ocena stopnia zaawansowania kliniczno-patoligicznego choroby.2.Omówienie stosowanych metod leczenia operacyjnego.3.Przedstawienie uzyskanych wcześniej wyników leczenia.Materiał i metodyW latach 1994–1998 w II Oddziale Chirurgicznym WCO leczono 120 chorych z nowotworami złośliwymi żołądka.WynikiMateriał ten oceniono pod względem klinicznym i morfoiogiznym (tabele). Ze 120 chorych operowano 118 (jednego dwukrotnie) – operacyjność wynosiła 98%. Spośród 118 zabiegów resekcje stanowiły 62,8% (75 operacji), a zabiegi nieresekcyjne 37,2% (43). Wśród 75 zabiegów resekcyjnych 97,3% (72) stanowiły operacje całkowitego usunięcia żołądka.Sposoby leczenia operacyjnego i rodzaje wykonywanych zabiegów oraz wczesne wyniki leczenia przedstawiono w tabelach

    Overlapping HIV and sex-work stigma among female sex workers recruited to 14 respondent-driven sampling surveys across Zimbabwe, 2013.

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    HIV stigma can inhibit uptake of HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy as well as negatively affect mental health. Efforts to reduce discrimination against people living with HIV (LWH) have contributed to greater acceptance of the infection. Female sex workers (FSW) LWH may experience overlapping stigma due to both their work and HIV status, although this is poorly understood. We examined HIV and sex-work stigma experienced by FSW LWH in Zimbabwe. Using the SAPPH-IRe cluster-randomised trial baseline survey, we analysed the data from 1039 FSW self-reporting HIV. The women were recruited in 14 sites using respondent-driven sampling. We asked five questions to assess internalised and experienced stigma related to working as a sex worker, and the same questions were asked in reference to HIV. Among all FSW, 91% reported some form of sex-work stigma. This was not associated with sociodemographic or sex-work characteristics. Rates of sex-work stigma were higher than those of HIV-related stigma. For example, 38% reported being "talked badly about" for LWH compared with 77% for their involvement in sex work. Those who reported any sex-work stigma also reported experiencing more HIV stigma compared to those who did not report sex-work stigma, suggesting a layering effect. FSW in Zimbabwe experience stigma for their role as "immoral" women and this appears more prevalent than HIV stigma. As HIV stigma attenuates, other forms of social stigma associated with the disease may persist and continue to pose barriers to effective care

    Exteneded Longitudinal Scaling and the Thermal Model

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    The property of extended longitudinal scaling of rapidity distributions was noticed recently over a broad range of beam energies. It is shown here that this property is consistent with predictions of the statistical thermal model up to the highest RHIC beam energies, however, we expect that at LHC energies the rapidity distribution of produced particles will violate extended longitudinal scaling.Comment: 3 pages, 4 figure

    Glueball Production in Peripheral Heavy-Ion Collisions

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    The method of equivalent quanta is applied both to photon-photon and, by analogy, to double pomeron exchange in heavy-ion collisions. This Weizs\"acker-Williams approach is used to calculate production cross sections for the glueball candidate fJ(1710)f_J(1710) meson via photon-photon and pomeron-pomeron fusion in peripheral heavy-ion collisions at both RHIC and LHC energies. The impact-parameter dependence for total and elastic cross sections are presented, and are compared to results for proton-proton collisions.Comment: 15 pages, 6 figure

    The role of surgery in combinated treatment of cancers

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    Surgery is the oldest and the most important treatment for cancer (75 – 80% patients presenting with cancer). Surgery is the simple, safe and the only treatment that could cure most patients (20% from 50% of 5 year survival).Unfortunately, when patients with solid tumors present to the physician for the first time, about 50% already have micrometastases byeond the primary site.The magnitude of surgical resection is modified by the use of adjuvant treatment modalities (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biologic therapy – 50% of 5 year survival).The role of surgery in the combinated treatment of cancer patients can be divided into a few separate areas:*Definitive surgical treatment of primary cancer (operatio m. Halsted, m. Miles)*Cytoreductive surgery (to reduce the bulk of residual disease)*Surgical resection of metastatic disease (40% of 5 year survival in pulmonary and hepatic metastases)*Surgery for palliation and oncologic emergencies (the treatment of exsanguinating hemorrhage, perforation, the relief of pain)*Diagnostic surgery for exact histologic diagnosis and precise staging when planning*Surgery in cancer prevention (carcinoma “in situ”, treatment to prevent subsequent cancers)Slides show the role of surgery in combinated treatment of cancers

    Scaling up stigma? The effects of antiretroviral roll-out on stigma and HIV testing. Early evidence from rural Tanzania

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    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interplay between antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up, different types of stigma and Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) uptake 2 years after the introduction of free ART in a rural ward of Tanzania. METHODS: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and group activities with a purposive sample of 91 community leaders, 77 ART clients and 16 health providers. Data were analysed for recurrent themes using NVIVO-7 software. RESULTS: The complex interplay between ART, stigma and VCT in this setting is characterised by two powerful but opposing dynamics. The availability of effective treatment has transformed HIV into a manageable condition which is contributing to a reduction in self-stigma and is stimulating VCT uptake. However, this is counterbalanced by the persistence of blaming attitudes and emergence of new sources of stigma associated with ART provision. The general perception among community leaders was that as ART users regained health, they increasingly engaged in sexual relations and "spread the disease." Fears were exacerbated because they were perceived to be very mobile and difficult to identify physically. Some leaders suggested giving ART recipients drugs "for impotence," marking them "with a sign" and putting them "in isolation camps." In this context, traditional beliefs about disease aetiology provided a less stigmatised explanation for HIV symptoms contributing to a situation of collective denial. CONCLUSION: Where anticipated stigma prevails, provision of antiretroviral drugs alone is unlikely to have sufficient impact on VCT uptake. Achieving widespread public health benefits of ART roll-out requires community-level interventions to ensure local acceptability of antiretroviral drugs

    Energy Loss Effect in High Energy Nuclear Drell-Yan Process

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    The energy loss effect in nuclear matter, which is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effect on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering process, can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process. By means of the nuclear parton distribution studied only with lepton deep inelastic scattering experimental data, measured Drell-Yan production cross sections for 800GeV proton incident on a variety of nuclear targets are analyzed within Glauber framework which takes into account energy loss of the beam proton. It is shown that the theoretical results with considering the energy loss effect are in good agreement with the FNAL E866

    Reply to Comment of Gazdzicki and Heinz on Strangeness Enhancement in p+Ap+A and S+AS+A

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    The Comment of Gazdzicki and Heinz is flawed because their assumed baryon stopping power in pApA is inconsistent with data and because they ignored half the analysis based on the VENUS model. The Comment continues the misleading presentation of strangeness enhancement by focusing on ratios of integrated yields. Those ratios discard essential experimental information on the rapidity dependence of produced Λ\Lambda and obscure discrepancies between different data sets. Our conclusion remains that the NA35 minimum bias data on p+SΛ+Xp+S\rightarrow\Lambda +X indicate an anomalous enhancement of central rapidity strangeness in few nucleon reactions that points to non-equilibrium dynamics as responsible for strangeness enhancement in nuclear reactions.Comment: revtex file, 6 pages, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Increased colonic propionate reduces anticipatory reward responses in the human striatum to high-energy foods

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    Background: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolites produced through the microbial fermentation of nondigestible dietary components, have key roles in energy homeostasis. Animal research suggests that colon-derived SCFAs modulate feeding behavior via central mechanisms. In humans, increased colonic production of the SCFA propionate acutely reduces energy intake. However, evidence of an effect of colonic propionate on the human brain or reward-based eating behavior is currently unavailable. Objectives: We investigated the effect of increased colonic propionate production on brain anticipatory reward responses during food picture evaluation. We hypothesized that elevated colonic propionate would reduce both reward responses and ad libitum energy intake via stimulation of anorexigenic gut hormone secretion. Design: In a randomized crossover design, 20 healthy nonobese men completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) food picture evaluation task after consumption of control inulin or inulin-propionate ester, a unique dietary compound that selectively augments colonic propionate production. The blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) signal was measured in a priori brain regions involved in reward processing, including the caudate, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, anterior insula, and orbitofrontal cortex (n = 18 had analyzable fMRI data). Results: Increasing colonic propionate production reduced BOLD signal during food picture evaluation in the caudate and nucleus accumbens. In the caudate, the reduction in BOLD signal was driven specifically by a lowering of the response to high-energy food. These central effects were partnered with a decrease in subjective appeal of high-energy food pictures and reduced energy intake during an ad libitum meal. These observations were not related to changes in blood peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose, or insulin concentrations. Conclusion: Our results suggest that colonic propionate production may play an important role in attenuating reward-based eating behavior via striatal pathways, independent of changes in plasma PYY and GLP-1. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00750438