23 research outputs found

    Targeting the pancreatic \u3b2-cell to treat diabetes

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    Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and predicted to affect over 500 million people by 2030. However, this growing burden of disease has not been met with a comparable expansion in therapeutic options. The appreciation of the pancreatic \u3b2-cell as a central player in the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes has renewed focus on ways to improve glucose homeostasis by preserving, expanding and improving the function of this key cell type. Here, we provide an overview of the latest developments in this field, with an emphasis on the most promising strategies identified to date for treating diabetes by targeting the \u3b2-cell

    GLIS3, a Susceptibility Gene for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes, Modulates Pancreatic Beta Cell Apoptosis via Regulation of a Splice Variant of the BH3-Only Protein Bim

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    Mutations in human Gli-similar (GLIS) 3 protein cause neonatal diabetes. The GLIS3 gene region has also been identified as a susceptibility risk locus for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. GLIS3 plays a role in the generation of pancreatic beta cells and in insulin gene expression, but there is no information on the role of this gene on beta cell viability and/or susceptibility to immune- and metabolic-induced stress. GLIS3 knockdown (KD) in INS-1E cells, primary FACS-purified rat beta cells, and human islet cells decreased expression of MafA, Ins2, and Glut2 and inhibited glucose oxidation and insulin secretion, confirming the role of this transcription factor for the beta cell differentiated phenotype. GLIS3 KD increased beta cell apoptosis basally and sensitized the cells to death induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1β + interferon-γ) or palmitate, agents that may contribute to beta cell loss in respectively type 1 and 2 diabetes. The increased cell death was due to activation of the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway of apoptosis, as indicated by cytochrome c release to the cytosol, Bax translocation to the mitochondria and activation of caspases 9 and 3. Analysis of the pathways implicated in beta cell apoptosis following GLIS3 KD indicated modulation of alternative splicing of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim, favouring expression of the pro-death variant BimS via inhibition of the splicing factor SRp55. KD of Bim abrogated the pro-apoptotic effect of GLIS3 loss of function alone or in combination with cytokines or palmitate. The present data suggest that altered expression of the candidate gene GLIS3 may contribute to both type 1 and 2 type diabetes by favouring beta cell apoptosis. This is mediated by alternative splicing of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim and exacerbated formation of the most pro-apoptotic variant BimSSCOPUS: ar.jinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    The Human Pancreatic Islet Transcriptome: Expression of Candidate Genes for Type 1 Diabetes and the Impact of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

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    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which pancreatic beta cells are killed by infiltrating immune cells and by cytokines released by these cells. Signaling events occurring in the pancreatic beta cells are decisive for their survival or death in diabetes. We have used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify transcripts, including splice variants, expressed in human islets of Langerhans under control conditions or following exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Based on this unique dataset, we examined whether putative candidate genes for T1D, previously identified by GWAS, are expressed in human islets. A total of 29,776 transcripts were identified as expressed in human islets. Expression of around 20% of these transcripts was modified by pro-inflammatory cytokines, including apoptosis- and inflammation-related genes. Chemokines were among the transcripts most modified by cytokines, a finding confirmed at the protein level by ELISA. Interestingly, 35% of the genes expressed in human islets undergo alternative splicing as annotated in RefSeq, and cytokines caused substantial changes in spliced transcripts. Nova1, previously considered a brain-specific regulator of mRNA splicing, is expressed in islets and its knockdown modified splicing. 25/41 of the candidate genes for T1D are expressed in islets, and cytokines modified expression of several of these transcripts. The present study doubles the number of known genes expressed in human islets and shows that cytokines modify alternative splicing in human islet cells. Importantly, it indicates that more than half of the known T1D candidate genes are expressed in human islets. This, and the production of a large number of chemokines and cytokines by cytokine-exposed islets, reinforces the concept of a dialog between pancreatic islets and the immune system in T1D. This dialog is modulated by candidate genes for the disease at both the immune system and beta cell level.SCOPUS: ar.jinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Is ARE/poly(U)-binding factor 1 (AUF1) a new player in cytokine-mediated beta cell apoptosis?

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    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease involving the progressive loss of beta cell mass. Cytokines released by immune cells are early contributors to beta cell apoptosis. Thus, an understanding of the signal transduction mechanisms induced by cytokines in beta cells is necessary for the rational design of novel therapies to prevent or to cure this disease. Cytokine-mediated beta cell apoptosis is a complex phenomenon that includes activation of the transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 and nuclear factor κB (NFκB), c-Jun N-terminal kinase, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. NFκB has both a pro-inflammatory and a pro-apoptotic role in beta cells. One of the mechanisms by which NFκB contributes to beta cell apoptosis is via activation of ER stress. The role for ER stress in beta cell apoptosis is not completely clarified but involves production of C/EBP homologous protein and activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In this issue of Diabetologia, Roggli et al (DOI 10.1007/s00125-011-2399-7) report on a new player in this elaborate response, the RNA-binding protein ARE/poly(U)-binding factor 1. This commentary discusses these findings and their relevance to the field.CommentJournal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tSCOPUS: re.jinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    The Transcription Factor C/EBP delta Has Anti-Apoptotic and Anti-Inflammatory Roles in Pancreatic Beta Cells

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    In the course of Type 1 diabetes pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1b, IFN-c and TNF-a) produced by islet-infiltrating immune cells modify expression of key gene networks in b-cells, leading to local inflammation and b-cell apoptosis. Most known cytokine-induced transcription factors have pro-apoptotic effects, and little is known regarding ‘‘protective’’ transcription factors. To this end, we presently evaluated the role of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPd) onb-cell apoptosis and production of inflammatory mediators in the rat insulinoma INS-1E cells, in purified primary rat b-cells and in human islets. C/EBPd is expressed and up-regulated in response to the cytokines IL-1b and IFN-c in rat b-cells and human islets. Small interfering RNA-mediated C/EBPd silencing exacerbated IL-1b+IFN-c-induced caspase 9 and 3 cleavage and apoptosis in these cells. C/EBPd deficiency increased the up-regulation of the transcription factor CHOP in response to cytokines, enhancing expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member BIM. Interfering with C/EBPd and CHOP or C/EBPd and BIM in double knockdown approaches abrogated the exacerbating effects of C/EBPd deficiency on cytokine-induced b-cell apoptosis, while C/EBPd overexpression inhibited BIM expression and partially protected b-cells against IL-1b+IFN-c-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, C/EBPd silencing boosted cytokine-induced production of the chemokines CXCL1, 9, 10 and CCL20 in b-cells by hampering IRF-1 up-regulation and increasing STAT1 activation in response to cytokines. These observations identify a novel function of C/EBPd as a modulatory transcriptio

    C/EBP homologous protein contributes to cytokine-induced pro-inflammatory responses and apoptosis in beta-cells.

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    Induction of the C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) is considered a key event for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by an autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic β-cells. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are early mediators of β-cell death in T1D. Cytokines induce ER stress and CHOP overexpression in β-cells, but the role for CHOP overexpression in cytokine-induced β-cell apoptosis remains controversial. We presently observed that CHOP knockdown (KD) prevents cytokine-mediated degradation of the anti-apoptotic proteins B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1), thereby decreasing the cleavage of executioner caspases 9 and 3, and apoptosis. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a crucial transcription factor regulating β-cell apoptosis and inflammation. CHOP KD resulted in reduced cytokine-induced NF-κB activity and expression of key NF-κB target genes involved in apoptosis and inflammation, including iNOS, FAS, IRF-7, IL-15, CCL5 and CXCL10. This was due to decreased IκB degradation and p65 translocation to the nucleus. The present data suggest that CHOP has a dual role in promoting β-cell death: (1) CHOP directly contributes to cytokine-induced β-cell apoptosis by promoting cytokine-induced mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis; and (2) by supporting the NF-κB activation and subsequent cytokine/chemokine expression, CHOP may contribute to apoptosis and the chemo attraction of mononuclear cells to the islets during insulitis.Journal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tSCOPUS: ar.jinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Pancreatic ß-cells activate a JunB/ATF3-dependent survival pathway during inflammation

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    Destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells by local autoimmune inflammation is a hallmark of type 1 diabetes. Histochemical analysis of pancreases from non-obese diabetic mice indicated activation of the transcription factor JunB/AP-1 (activator protein-1) after autoimmune infiltration of the islets. In vitro studies demonstrated that the cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ induce JunB expression as a protective mechanism against apoptosis in both human and rodent β-cells. The gene network affected was studied by microarray analysis showing that JunB regulates nearly 20% of the cytokine-modified β-cell genes, including the transcription factor ATF3. Direct transcriptional induction of ATF3 by JunB is a key event for β-cell survival after TNF-α+IFN-γ treatment. Moreover, pharmacological upregulation of JunB/ATF3 via increased cAMP protected rodent primary β-cells and human islet cells against pro-inflammatory mediators. These results were confirmed in genetically modified islets derived from Ubi-JunB transgenic mice. Our findings identify ATF3 as a novel downstream target of JunB in the survival mechanism of β-cells under inflammatory stress.Oncogene advance online publication, 15 August 2011; doi:10.1038/onc.2011.353

    Cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma induce pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis through STAT1-mediated Bim protein activation.

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    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by local inflammation (insulitis) in the pancreatic islets causing β-cell loss. The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is regulated by the balance and interaction between Bcl-2 members. Here we clarify the molecular mechanism of β-cell death triggered by the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ. The combination of TNF-α + IFN-γ induced DP5, p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and Bim expression in human islets and rodent β-cells. DP5 and PUMA inactivation by RNA interference partially protected against TNF-α + IFN-γ-induced β-cell apoptosis. DP5 knock-out mice had increased β-cell area, and isolated islets from these mice were resistant to cytokine exposure. Bim expression was transcriptionally regulated by STAT1, and its activation triggered cleavage of caspases. Silencing of Bim protected rodent and human β-cells to a large extent against TNF-α + IFN-γ, indicating a major role of this BH3-only activator protein in the mechanism of apoptosis. Our data support a highly regulated and context-dependent modulation of specific Bcl-2 members controlling the mitochondrial pathway of β-cell apoptosis during insulitis.Journal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tSCOPUS: ar.jinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Cytokines Tumor Necrosis Factor-a and Interferon-? Induce Pancreatic ß-Cell Apoptosis through STAT1-mediated Bim Protein Activation.

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    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by local inflammation (insulitis) in the pancreatic islets causing β-cell loss. The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is regulated by the balance and interaction between Bcl-2 members. Here we clarify the molecular mechanism of β-cell death triggered by the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ. The combination of TNF-α + IFN-γ induced DP5, p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and Bim expression in human islets and rodent β-cells. DP5 and PUMA inactivation by RNA interference partially protected against TNF-α + IFN-γ-induced β-cell apoptosis. DP5 knock-out mice had increased β-cell area, and isolated islets from these mice were resistant to cytokine exposure. Bim expression was transcriptionally regulated by STAT1, and its activation triggered cleavage of caspases. Silencing of Bim protected rodent and human β-cells to a large extent against TNF-α + IFN-γ, indicating a major role of this BH3-only activator protein in the mechanism of apoptosis. Our data support a highly regulated and context-dependent modulation of specific Bcl-2 members controlling the mitochondrial pathway of β-cell apoptosis during insulitis
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