1,064 research outputs found

    Controlling the quantum number distribution and yield of Rydberg states via the duration of the laser pulse

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    We show that the distribution of quantum numbers of Rydberg states does not only depend on the field strength and wavelength of the laser which the atom is exposed to, but that it also changes significantly with the duration of the laser pulse. We provide an intuitive explanation for the underlying mechanism and derive a scaling law for the position of the peak in the quantum number distribution on the pulse duration. The new analytic description for the electron's movement in the superposed laser and Coulomb field (applied in the study of quantum numbers) is then used to explain the decrease of the Rydberg yield with longer pulse durations. This description stands in contrast to the concepts that explained the decrease so far and also reveals that approximations which neglect Coulomb effects during propagation are not sufficient in cases such as this.Comment: 8 pages, 8 figure

    Oxygen, nitrogen and sulphide fluxes in the Black Sea

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    The fluxes and production/consumption rates of oxygen, nitrate, ammonium and sulphide are estimated in the paper utilising results of the 1.5-dimensional stationary model of vertical exchange in the Black Sea (Samodurov & Ivanov, 1998). The profiles of the vertical flux and rate of production/consumption of these substances have revealed a number of intriguing features in the biogeochemical nature of the Black Sea. An approximate redox balance of the counter-fluxes of nitrate and ammonium into the sub-oxic zone has been revealed confirming that intensive denitrification may be the primary loss of nitrogen in the Black Sea. A low ratio of the nitrate stock to the flux of nitrate from the oxycline confirms the possibility of prominent changes in the distribution of nitrate on the time scale of a year. The ratio of the nitrate to oxygen vertical flux has revealed a lack of nitrate in the oxycline above the nitrate maximum. The lateral (related to the "Bosporus plume") flux of oxygen in the layer of the main pycnocline appears to be very important for the existing biogeochemical structure of the Black sea water column being the reason of sulphide consumption inside the anoxic zone and changes in the ammonium-sulphide stoichiometry of the anoxic zone, the primary reason of the existence of the sub-oxic layer and the basic reason of relative stability of the sulphide onset

    N=4 supersymmetric Eguchi-Hanson sigma model in d=1

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    We show that it is possible to construct a supersymmetric mechanics with four supercharges possessing not conformally flat target space. A general idea of constructing such models is presented. A particular case with Eguchi--Hanson target space is investigated in details: we present the standard and quotient approaches to get the Eguchi--Hanson model, demonstrate their equivalence, give a full set of nonlinear constraints, study their properties and give an explicit expression for the target space metric.Comment: LaTeX, 9 page

    Ventilation of the Black Sea pycnocline on seasonal and interannual time scales

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    The paper is a description of temporal variability of winter cooling conditions and estimation of effective cross-isopycnal mixing rates in the Black Sea. Data averaging versus salinity / sigma-t scale was used to filter effects of local dynamics. It is shown that traces of winter mixing events appear well preserved in the temperature-salinity structure, due to the peculiarities of the Black Sea where temperature often acts as a passive tracer with a smaller contribution to density as compared to salinity. Vertical distribution of the magnitudes of temperature oscillations indicates that the convection events have limited effects in modifying the structure of the middle and lower pycnocline on a seasonal time scale. However, long-term fluctuations are well recognised. The magnitudes of the seasonal and long-term temperature fluctuations are comparable only in the upper pycnocline. Three major cooling events can be distinguished from the record of the pycnocline temperature for the past 75 years. The intensive cooling occurred in the late 1920s - early 1930s, early 1950s and late 1980s - early 1990s. Partial renewal of the water of the cold intermediate layer core took place approximately once in two years. The period when convection causes erosion of the pycnocline lasts for only a week. It is shown that a lateral source of heat and salt exists for the upper pycnocline, where it is the cold intermediate water, and for the lower pycnocline, the layer below S@ 20.5, where this lateral source of salt and heat is maintained by disintegrating Bosphorus plume

    Experimental Study of Coherent Summation of Radiation from Two Widely Aperture Pulsed

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    Emission of two high-power pulsed CO2-lasers with a transverse discharge at atmospheric pressure in the active medium and the output beam aperture 100х100 mm, united by a joint unstable telescopic reso-nator, was coherently summarized under conditions of real ground-level trackon the screen surface, which was remote from output mirror of the laser at a distance of 263 m. Output Brewster windows of laser cu-vettes were manufactured from single-crystal plates of sodium chloride which had a diameter of 300 mm. Mirrors for resonator and optical circuit were manufactured from oxygen-free copper. Active medium - a mixture of gases: CO2: N2: He in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3. Laser pulse duration is 5 microseconds. During the ex-periment, when summing on the screen 2-laser beams at the lowest possible convergence angle of rays, the interference pattern was registered. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/3610

    Phonon squeezing via correlations in the superconducting electron-phonon interaction

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    Superconductivity in the conventional BCS model with correlated squeezed phonons is discussed. It is shown that the energy gap and the critical temperature are maximally enhanced in an optimum and finite range of squeezed coupling. For finite-squeezed coupling the ratio 2Δ/Tc becomes coupling-constant dependent and increases beyond the BCS value of 3.53. Ion-mass dependence of the squeezed coupling constant can yield variations of the isotope exponent from its conventional BCS value of 0.5. © 1995 The American Physical Society

    Phonon squeezing in superconducting borocarbides

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    The recently discovered superconductor LuNi2B2C is investigated in the context of strong electron-electron correlations modulated by a squeezed phonon mode propagating in the perpendicular direction to the layers with longitudinal polarization. The squeezed phonons arise in the anharmonic lattice expansion since the linear electron-phonon interaction vanishes due to the structure of the NiB4 tetrahedra. The observed weak isotope effect and small dependence of Tc on pressure is qualitatively understood within the framework of this model. © 1994

    Контроль качества меченых FITC белков для интерактомных исследований методами капиллярного SDS гель-электрофореза и SPR биосенсором

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    The technology of dye-labeled proteins has many fields of application, especially in interactomics. The aim of this work was to adapt protocol of conjugation of low molecular weight (12 – 15 kDа) heme-containing proteins with fluorescein isothiocyanate, isomer I, (FITC) for subsequent protein-protein interaction studies. We have monitored the quality of FITC-labeling of the target protein and comparative assessment of its binding capacity. Using the cytochrome C (Mw 12 kDа) as an example, it has been shown that using the three step method approach including conventional spectrophotometry, capillary gel electrophoresis and SPR analysis it is possible to assess: (i) the capability of the FITC-labeled target protein to interact with its protein partner and protein material from tissue lysates, (ii) the fact of dye conjugation with the protein, and (iii) the quality of purification for final protein preparation from unreacted free dye moleculesТехнология меченых красителем белков имеет очень много областей использования, в том числе и для интерактомных исследований. Целью данной работы была оценка применимости протокола мечения белков флуоресцеин изотиоционатом (изомер I, (FITC)) для белков с небольшой молекулярной массой (12 –15 кДа) путем их ковалентной конъюгации с FITC, а также контроль качества включения метки в белок и сравнительная оценка его способности к белок-белковым взаимодействиям. На примере цитохрома с (12 кДа) было показано, что комбинированное использование методов традиционной спектрофотометрии, капиллярного гель-электрофореза и SPR-анализа позволяет сделать выводы о: а) сохранении способности меченого целевого белка взаимодействовать с белками-партнёрами и белковым материалом тканевых лизатов; б) факте включения метки в белок; в) качестве очистки финального белкового препарата от не прореагировавших с ним свободных молекул красителя

    Усиление сигнала SPR биосенсора с помощью золотых наночастиц на примере анализа бета-2-микроглобулина человека

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    The highly sensitive method of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection of low concentrations of target proteins based on the biosensor signal enhancement by using gold nanoparticles (similar to “sandwich” assay type) is described. The commercial protein preparations of beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) as a model biomarker and polyclonal (Pab) and monoclonal antibodies (Mab) to B2M were used. It has been shown that this universal and reproducible method can be applied for SPR analysis of other protein biomarkers by analogy with the biomarker protein B2M. The present work is also focused on the experimental protocol description. The protocols of gold nanoparticles (GNP) synthesis, obtaining the conjugates of Pab/GNP and measuring their concentration, the protocol of Mab covalent immobilization on the optical chip CM5 of a biosensor and also SPR registration of molecular interactions Mab-biomarker and in the “sandwich” assay type Mab-biomarker-Pab or Mab-biomarker-Pab/GNP are considered in detail.Описан высокочувствительный метод детекции низких концентраций целевых белков с помощью усиления сигнала оптического биосенсора на основе поверхностного плазмонного резонанса (SPR) с использованием золотых наночастиц (по типу “сандвич”). В качестве модели биомаркера использован коммерческий белковый препарат бета-2-микроглобулина (B2M), а также препараты поликлональных (Pab) и моноклональных антител (Mab) к B2M. Данный метод анализа вследствие его универсальности и воспроизводимости может быть применён для анализа любых белковых биомаркеров. Подробно рассмотрены экспериментальные протоколы синтеза золотых наночастиц (GNP), получения их конъюгатов с поликлональными антителами (Pab/GNP), спектрофотометрического определения концентрации наночастиц и конъюгатов, ковалентной иммобилизации Mab на поверхности оптического чипа СМ5 биосенсора, регистрации взаимодействий Mab-биомаркер и формирования типа “сандвич” Mab-биомаркер-Pab и Mab-биомаркер-Pab/GNP