1,396 research outputs found

    The Double Journey of a Jewish-American Academic

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    Which College Programs Give Students the Best Bang for Their Buck?

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    Last year, we released an analysis that introduced a new way for students and policymakers to evaluate their return on investment (ROI) in higher education. This Price-to-Earnings Premium (PEP) calculated the time it takes students to recoup their postsecondary educational costs based on the earnings premium that the typical student obtains by attending an institution of higher education. And earlier this year, we issued a follow-up report examining the PEP for low-income students at colleges and universities across the country. While these first two papers focused on the outcomes of students who had attended particular schools, it did not provide a nuanced look at how students fared at individual college programs within a school.Luckily, new program-level data released from the US Department of Education (Department) now allows us to dig below the surface at many institutions across the country to explore what kind of ROI the typical student received from the specific college program from which they graduated. Comparing the earnings premium that students obtain relative to the price they paid to earn their credential allows us to calculate the PEP that individual majors within an institution produce for their graduates. This gives those considering pursuing a postsecondary credential—as well as policymakers, researchers, and taxpayers—more actionable data about where students should be investing their time and money if they hope to increase their economic mobility. It also provides college administrators with concrete information about which programs of study are working well for students, in addition to flagging those that leave them with little to no economic ROI after they complete their credential

    What is the Underlying Cause of Infantile Colic?

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    Infantile colic (IC) is an important area of current research due to the extreme distress it causes parents and their infants. It is vital that a cause is isolated so that treatment can be found because IC is a risk factor for child abuse. In this paper, two major theories were posed to elucidate the underlying cause of IC—the gastrointestinal model and the neurological model. The gastrointestinal model suggests that IC stems from issues such as an immature gut. The neurological model suggests that infantile migraines are the causative agents of IC. Both theories supply correlational evidence but are subject to scrutiny because they are incomplete. A third theory, the fourth trimester theory, is suggested to fill in the gaps found in the two major models. Due to the novelty of this area of research, additional studies, such as genetics studies are suggested for future IC research

    The Bremer Emergency Fund: Helping Individuals and Families Navigate Crisis

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    Based on a survey of Bremer Emergency Fund grantees, examines the information collected on clients, follow-up and referral assistance provided to clients, unmet needs, grantees' plans for measuring impact, and interest in sharing information and outcomes

    Corporations; First Amendment Rights; State ex rel Grant v. Brown

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    IN AUGUST 9, 1972 the Relators, Greater Cincinnati Gay Society, tendered articles of incorporation for a non-profit corporation to the Secretary of State of Ohio, under provisions of the Ohio Revised Code. The Secretary of State refused to accept the incorporation papers, however, claiming that the purpose of the group, which was to promote acceptance of homosexuality as a valid life style, was contrary to public policy, since homosexuality was then a criminal act

    Bush Foundation Fellowships -- Creating Broader Impact: A Study of How Individuals Contribute to the Strength of Communities, Institutions, and Fields (Executive Summary)

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    Presents findings from a study of three fellowship programs currently in operation, and evaluates their effectiveness as a strategy to strengthen communities and fulfill the Bush Foundation's mission

    The Biophysical Study of the Efficacy of Various Phospholipid Membranes on Daptomycin

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    Daptomycin is an important lipopeptide antibiotic used in the treatment of systematic and life-threatening infections of the skin and underlying tissue caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Calcium and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) must be present on the target cell membrane for daptomycin’s mechanism of action to proceed. Calcium and PG also promote oligomerization, a formation that has been assumed to aid in the bactericidal process. The purpose of the experiments conducted was to understand the basic biophysical properties of membrane phospholipids as they exist in their pure and mixed monolayer forms. Furthermore, the experiments conducted attempted to discern how daptomycin penetrates the different lipids that were used. Data collected would be useful for future experiments that aim to understand the naturally occurring bacterial membranes and how daptomycin interacts with them. Using precise biophysical approaches, specifically monolayer studies involving a KSV NIMA-Langmuir Trough and Kibron Langmuir Trough, our lab conducted basic research which could prove to be useful in revealing daptomycin’s ambiguity. Preliminary results revealed differences in isotherms between phospholipids with anionic and zwitterionic head-groups. Further data collected revealed daptomycin’s degree of insertion in phospholipids with and without the presentation of calcium. Given the limitations of our retrospective studies, additional studies are needed to make definitive evaluations with these results. Because resistance to daptomycin is rising, it is particularly imperative to conduct further research to understand its unsolved mechanism of action

    A Reconnaissance of the Deeper Jamaican Coral Reef Fish Communities

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    A submersible was used to make repetitive dives in Jamaica to depths of 25 m, 50 m, and 100 m. With increasing depth there was a decline in both species and the number of individuals. The territorial damselfish and mixed-species groups of herbivorous fishes were conspicuously absent at 100 m. Few unique species appeared with increasing depth and thus the deep community resembled depauperate versions of the shallower communities. Twelve species were shared between the 3 depths but there was no significant correlation in ranked relative abundance. Thus increasing depth also influenced community organization

    A microfluidic chip based model for the study of full thickness human intestinal tissue using dual flow

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    © 2016 Author(s). The study of inflammatory bowel disease, including Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease, has relied largely upon the use of animal or cell culture models; neither of which can represent all aspects of the human pathophysiology. Presented herein is a dual flow microfluidic device which holds full thickness human intestinal tissue in a known orientation. The luminal and serosal sides are independently perfused ex vivo with nutrients with simultaneous waste removal for up to 72 h. The microfluidic device maintains the viability and integrity of the tissue as demonstrated through Haematoxylin & Eosin staining, immunohistochemistry and release of lactate dehydrogenase. In addition, the inflammatory state remains in the tissue after perfusion on the device as determined by measuring calprotectin levels. It is anticipated that this human model will be extremely useful for studying the biology and tes ting novel interventions in diseased tissue

    Systemic and military sources of rising state strategy towards declining great powers

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    Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 2013.Cataloged from PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references (pages 260-284).What explains variation in relatively rising state strategy towards declining great powers? This project develops and tests a theory of state strategy vis-a-vis declining great powers, termed Realist Decline Theory. Realist Decline Theory argues that states debating the strategies to adopt towards a declining peer are forced to consider the costs and benefits of either preying on the declining state, or supporting the decliner and helping it maintain its place within the great power ranks. As the costs and benefits wax and wane, states adopt different degrees of predation or support for self-interested reasons. Two variables - the polarity of the international system and the declining state's military posture - determine these costs and benefits by shaping the security threats facing relatively rising states. This study uses multiple primary and secondary sources to measure Realist Decline Theory's variables and evaluate its analytic power against competing explanations. The argument is tested using two structured, focused comparisons of rising state strategy in the post- 1945 international system: American policy towards the declining Soviet Union (1989-1990), and American and Soviet strategy towards the declining United Kingdom (1945-1949). These cases were selected because they provide strong tests of the theory vis-a'-vis competing theories. The cases also permit observation and evaluation of substantial variation in the nature of rising state strategy. The overall finding is that Realist Decline Theory indeed explains variation in rising state strategy, although other factors are important. This study makes several contributions. First, it identifies and explains an empirical puzzle that is either overlooked or only loosely explained by existing research. Second, the study attempts to synthesize different streams of international relations theory in the realist tradition into a unified realist theory of state strategy. Third, the research contributes to Cold War historiography. Finally, the study offers insight for policymakers worried about the possible decline of the United States and rise of new great powers to international prominence.by Joshua Richard Itzkowitz Shifrinson.Ph.D
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