65 research outputs found

    Boosting Cholesterol Efflux from Foam Cells by Sequential Administration of rHDL to Deliver MicroRNA and to Remove Cholesterol in a Triple-Cell 2D Atherosclerosis Model

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    Cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality worldwide, is primarily caused by atherosclerosis, which is characterized by lipid and inflammatory cell accumulation in blood vessels and carotid intima thickening. Although disease management has improved significantly, new therapeutic strategies focused on accelerating atherosclerosis regression must be developed. Atherosclerosis models mimicking in vivo-like conditions provide essential information for research and new advances toward clinical application. New nanotechnology-based therapeutic opportunities have emerged with apoA-I nanoparticles (recombinant/reconstituted high-density lipoproteins, rHDL) as ideal carriers to deliver molecules and the discovery that microRNAs participate in atherosclerosis establishment and progression. Here, a therapeutic strategy to improve cholesterol efflux is developed based on a two-step administration of rHDL consisting of a first dose of antagomiR-33a-loaded rHDLs to induce adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters A1 overexpression, followed by a second dose of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine rHDLs, which efficiently remove cholesterol from foam cells. A triple-cell 2D-atheroma plaque model reflecting the cellular complexity of atherosclerosis is used to improve efficiency of the nanoparticles in promoting cholesterol efflux. The results show that sequential administration of rHDL potentiates cholesterol efflux indicating that this approach may be used in vivo to more efficiently target atherosclerotic lesions and improve prognosis of the disease.This work was supported by Ministerio De Ciencia e Innovaci√≥n; Proyectos De Generaci√≥n De Conocimiento 2021 (Ref: PID2021-127056OB-I00). U.G.-G. was supported by Fundaci√≥n Biof√≠sica Bizkaia. A.B.-V. was supported by Programa de especializaci√≥n de Personal Investigador Doctor en la UPV/EHU (2019) 2019‚Äď2020. S.J.-B. and A.L.-S. were supported by a grant Programa Investigador en Formaci√≥n (2017‚Äď2018) and (2019‚Äď2020), Gobierno Vasco, respectively. A.L.-S. was partially supported by Fundaci√≥n Biof√≠sica Bizkaia.Peer reviewe

    Genomic Multiple Sclerosis Risk Variants Modulate the Expression of the ANKRD55‚ÄďIL6ST Gene Region in Immature Dendritic Cells

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    Autoimmune; Multiple sclerosisAutoinmune; Esclerosis m√ļltipleAutoimmune; Esclerosi m√ļltipleIntronic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ANKRD55 gene are associated with the risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The risk alleles have been linked to higher expression levels of ANKRD55 and the neighboring IL6ST (gp130) gene in CD4+ T lymphocytes of healthy controls. The biological function of ANKRD55, its role in the immune system, and cellular sources of expression other than lymphocytes remain uncharacterized. Here, we show that monocytes gain capacity to express ANKRD55 during differentiation in immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) in the presence of interleukin (IL)-4/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). ANKRD55 expression levels are further enhanced by retinoic acid agonist AM580 but downregulated following maturation with interferon (IFN)-ő≥ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ANKRD55 was detected in the nucleus of moDC in nuclear speckles. We also analyzed the adjacent IL6ST, IL31RA, and SLC38A9 genes. Of note, in healthy controls, MS risk SNP genotype influenced ANKRD55 and IL6ST expression in immature moDC in opposite directions to that in CD4+ T cells. This effect was stronger for a partially correlated SNP, rs13186299, that is located, similar to the main MS risk SNPs, in an ANKRD55 intron. Upon analysis in MS patients, the main GWAS MS risk SNP rs7731626 was associated with ANKRD55 expression levels in CD4+ T cells. MoDC-specific ANKRD55 and IL6ST mRNA levels showed significant differences according to the clinical form of the disease, but, in contrast to healthy controls, were not influenced by genotype. We also measured serum sgp130 levels, which were found to be higher in homozygotes of the protective allele of rs7731626. Our study characterizes ANKRD55 expression in moDC and indicates monocyte-to-dendritic cell (Mo‚ÄďDC) differentiation as a process potentially influenced by MS risk SNPs.This research was supported by grants to KV from MINECO (SAF2016-74891-R), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (FIS-PI20/00123), Gobierno Vasco RIS3 (Ref. 2019222043), and Red Espa√Īola de Esclerosis M√ļltiple (REEM; RD16/0015/0005). NV and LMV were supported by ISCIII (FIS-PI18/00572) and REEM (RD16/0015/0001). RTN is a recipient of a fellowship from the Secretar√≠a Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnolog√≠a e Innovaci√≥n (SENACYT; Convocatoria Doctorado de Investigaci√≥n Ronda III, 2018; Ref. BIDP-III-2018-12) of the Gobierno Nacional, Rep√ļblica de Panam√°

    Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis

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    Atherosclerosis is the main risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis is initiated by endothelium activation and, followed by a cascade of events (accumulation of lipids, fibrous elements, and calcification), triggers the vessel narrowing and activation of inflammatory pathways. The resultant atheroma plaque, along with these processes, results in cardiovascular complications. This review focuses on the different stages of atherosclerosis development, ranging from endothelial dysfunction to plaque rupture. In addition, the post-transcriptional regulation and modulation of atheroma plaque by microRNAs and lncRNAs, the role of microbiota, and the importance of sex as a crucial risk factor in atherosclerosis are covered here in order to provide a global view of the disease.This work was supported by the Basque Government (Grupos Consolidados IT-1264-19). A.B.-V. was supported by Programa de especializaci√≥n de Personal Investigador Doctor en la UPV/EHU (2019) 2019/2020; U.G-G. was supported by Margarita Salas Grant; and S.J. and A.L-S were supported by a grant PIF (2017‚Äď2018) and PIF (2019‚Äď2020) Gobierno Vasco, respectively

    Genomic Multiple Sclerosis Risk Variants Modulate the Expression of the ANKRD55-IL6ST Gene Region in Immature Dendritic Cells

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    Intronic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ANKRD55 gene are associated with the risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The risk alleles have been linked to higher expression levels of ANKRD55 and the neighboring IL6ST (gp130) gene in CD4(+) T lymphocytes of healthy controls. The biological function of ANKRD55, its role in the immune system, and cellular sources of expression other than lymphocytes remain uncharacterized. Here, we show that monocytes gain capacity to express ANKRD55 during differentiation in immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) in the presence of interleukin (IL)-4/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). ANKRD55 expression levels are further enhanced by retinoic acid agonist AM580 but downregulated following maturation with interferon (IFN)-gamma and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ANKRD55 was detected in the nucleus of moDC in nuclear speckles. We also analyzed the adjacent IL6ST, IL31RA, and SLC38A9 genes. Of note, in healthy controls, MS risk SNP genotype influenced ANKRD55 and IL6ST expression in immature moDC in opposite directions to that in CD4(+) T cells. This effect was stronger for a partially correlated SNP, rs13186299, that is located, similar to the main MS risk SNPs, in an ANKRD55 intron. Upon analysis in MS patients, the main GWAS MS risk SNP rs7731626 was associated with ANKRD55 expression levels in CD4(+) T cells. MoDC-specific ANKRD55 and IL6ST mRNA levels showed significant differences according to the clinical form of the disease, but, in contrast to healthy controls, were not influenced by genotype. We also measured serum sgp130 levels, which were found to be higher in homozygotes of the protective allele of rs7731626. Our study characterizes ANKRD55 expression in moDC and indicates monocyte-to-dendritic cell (Mo-DC) differentiation as a process potentially influenced by MS risk SNPs

    Novel transcript discovery expands the repertoire of pathologically-associated, long non-coding RNAs in vascular smooth muscle cells

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    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) provide vital contractile force within blood vessel walls, yet can also propagate cardiovascular pathologies through proliferative and pro-inflammatory activities. Such phenotypes are driven, in part, by the diverse effects of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) on gene expression. However, lncRNA characterisation in VSMCs in pathological states is hampered by incomplete lncRNA representation in reference annotation. We aimed to improve lncRNA representation in such contexts by assembling non-reference transcripts in RNA sequencing datasets describing VSMCs stimulated in vitro with cytokines, growth factors, or mechanical stress, as well as those isolated from atherosclerotic plaques. All transcripts were then subjected to a rigorous lncRNA prediction pipeline. We substantially improved coverage of lncRNAs responding to pro-mitogenic stimuli, with non-reference lncRNAs contributing 21‚Äď32% for each dataset. We also demonstrate non-reference lncRNAs were biased towards enriched expression within VSMCs, and transcription from enhancer sites, suggesting particular relevance to VSMC processes, and the regulation of neighbouring protein-coding genes. Both VSMC-enriched and enhancer-transcribed lncRNAs were large components of lncRNAs responding to pathological stimuli, yet without novel transcript discovery 33‚Äď46% of these lncRNAs would remain hidden. Our comprehensive VSMC lncRNA repertoire allows proper prioritisation of candidates for characterisation and exemplifies a strategy to broaden our knowledge of lncRNA across a range of disease states.British Heart Foundation, European Research Council Advanced Grant VASCMIR and British/Israeli Collaborative grant BIRAX

    The Rare IL22RA2 Signal Peptide Coding Variant rs28385692 Decreases Secretion of IL-22BP Isoform-1, -2 and -3 and Is Associated with Risk for Multiple Sclerosis.

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    The IL22RA2 locus is associated with risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) but causative variants are yet to be determined. In a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) screen of this locus in a Basque population, rs28385692, a rare coding variant substituting Leu for Pro at position 16 emerged significantly (p = 0.02). This variant is located in the signal peptide (SP) shared by the three secreted protein isoforms produced by IL22RA2 (IL-22 binding protein-1(IL-22BPi1), IL-22BPi2 and IL-22BPi3). Genotyping was extended to a Europe-wide case-control dataset and yielded high significance in the full dataset (p = 3.17 √ó 10-4). Importantly, logistic regression analyses conditioning on the main known MS-associated SNP at this locus, rs17066096, revealed that this association was independent from the primary association signal in the full case-control dataset. In silico analysis predicted both disruption of the alpha helix of the H-region of the SP and decreased hydrophobicity of this region, ultimately affecting the SP cleavage site. We tested the effect of the p.Leu16Pro variant on the secretion of IL-22BPi1, IL-22BPi2 and IL-22BPi3 and observed that the Pro16 risk allele significantly lowers secretion levels of each of the isoforms to around 50%-60% in comparison to the Leu16 reference allele. Thus, our study suggests that genetically coded decreased levels of IL-22BP isoforms are associated with augmented risk for MS

    BIRC6 Is Associated with Vulnerability of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque

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    Carotid atherosclerotic plaque rupture can lead to cerebrovascular accident (CVA). By comparing RNA-Seq data from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) extracted from carotid atheroma surgically excised from a group of asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects, we identified more than 700 genomic variants associated with symptomatology (p < 0.05). From these, twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for further validation. Comparing genotypes of a hospital-based cohort of asymptomatic with symptomatic patients, an exonic SNP in the BIRC6 (BRUCE/Apollon) gene, rs35286811, emerged as significantly associated with CVA symptomatology (p = 0.002; OR = 2.24). Moreover, BIRC6 mRNA levels were significantly higher in symptomatic than asymptomatic subjects upon measurement by qPCR in excised carotid atherosclerotic tissue (p < 0.0001), and significantly higher in carriers of the rs35286811 risk allele (p < 0.0001). rs35286811 is a proxy of a GWAS SNP reported to be associated with red cell distribution width (RDW); RDW was increased in symptomatic patients (p < 0.03), but was not influenced by the rs35286811 genotype in our cohort. BIRC6 is a negative regulator of both apoptosis and autophagy. This work introduces BIRC6 as a novel genetic risk factor for stroke, and identifies autophagy as a genetically regulated mechanism of carotid plaque vulnerability.This work was financially supported by grants from the Departments of Education (Ref. PIBA2018-67) and Health (Ref. RIS3-2019222038) of the Basque Government, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain; by the Spanish Neurovascular Network (INVICTUSplus) (Ref. RD16/0019/0007) funded by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaci√≥n, Madrid, Spain; and by the research project grant (IKERIKTUS) funded by the RefbioII Trans-Pyrenean Cooperation Network for Biomedical Research financed by Horizon 2020. I.A. is supported by the Marat√≥n EiTB 2017 for Funding of Research into Stroke, Bilbao, Spain (Ref. BIO18/IC/005); R.T.N. is the recipient of a fellowship from the Secretar√≠a Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnolog√≠a e Innovaci√≥n (SENACYT; Convocatoria Doctorado de Investigaci√≥n Ronda III, 2018; Ref. BIDP-III-2018-12) of the Gobierno Nacional, Rep√ļblica de Panam√°

    BIRC6 Is Associated with Vulnerability of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque

    No full text
    Carotid atherosclerotic plaque rupture can lead to cerebrovascular accident (CVA). By comparing RNA-Seq data from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) extracted from carotid atheroma surgically excised from a group of asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects, we identified more than 700 genomic variants associated with symptomatology (p &lt; 0.05). From these, twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for further validation. Comparing genotypes of a hospital-based cohort of asymptomatic with symptomatic patients, an exonic SNP in the BIRC6 (BRUCE/Apollon) gene, rs35286811, emerged as significantly associated with CVA symptomatology (p = 0.002; OR = 2.24). Moreover, BIRC6 mRNA levels were significantly higher in symptomatic than asymptomatic subjects upon measurement by qPCR in excised carotid atherosclerotic tissue (p &lt; 0.0001), and significantly higher in carriers of the rs35286811 risk allele (p &lt; 0.0001). rs35286811 is a proxy of a GWAS SNP reported to be associated with red cell distribution width (RDW); RDW was increased in symptomatic patients (p &lt; 0.03), but was not influenced by the rs35286811 genotype in our cohort. BIRC6 is a negative regulator of both apoptosis and autophagy. This work introduces BIRC6 as a novel genetic risk factor for stroke, and identifies autophagy as a genetically regulated mechanism of carotid plaque vulnerability

    Cholesterol Efflux Efficiency of Reconstituted HDL Is Affected by Nanoparticle Lipid Composition

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    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of mortality worldwide is primarily caused by atherosclerosis, which is promoted by the accumulation of low-density lipoproteins into the intima of large arteries. Multiple nanoparticles mimicking natural HDL (rHDL) have been designed to remove cholesterol excess in CVD therapy. The goal of this investigation was to assess the cholesterol efflux efficiency of rHDLs with different lipid compositions, mimicking different maturation stages of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) occurring in vivo. Methods: the cholesterol efflux activity of soybean PC (Soy-PC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), DPPC:Chol:1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (LysoPC) and DPPC:18:2 cholesteryl ester (CE):LysoPC rHDLs was determined in several cell models to investigate the contribution of lipid composition to the effectiveness of cholesterol removal. Results: DPPC rHDLs are the most efficient particles, inducing cholesterol efflux in all cellular models and in all conditions the effect was potentiated when the ABCA1 transporter was upregulated. Conclusions: DPPC rHDLs, which resemble nascent HDL, are the most effective particles in inducing cholesterol efflux due to the higher physical binding affinity of cholesterol to the saturated long-chain-length phospholipids and the favored cholesterol transfer from a highly positively curved bilayer, to an accepting planar bilayer such as DPPC rHDLs. The physicochemical characteristics of rHDLs should be taken into consideration to design more efficient nanoparticles to promote cholesterol efflux.This work was supported by the Basque Government (Grupos Consolidados IT-1264-19). U.G.-G. was supported by Fundaci√≥n Biof√≠sica Bizkaia. A.B.-V. was supported by Programa de especializaci√≥n de Personal Investigador Doctor en la UPV/EHU (2019) 2019‚Äď2020. S.J.-B. and A.L.-S. were supported by a grant PIF (2017‚Äď2018) and (2019‚Äď2020), Gobierno Vasco, respectively. A.L.-S. was partially supported by Fundaci√≥n Biof√≠sica Bizkaia

    Pharmacological Targeting of the ER-Resident Chaperones GRP94 or Cyclophilin B Induces Secretion of IL-22 Binding Protein Isoform-1 (IL-22BPi1)

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    Of the three interleukin-22 binding protein (IL-22BP) isoforms produced by the human IL22RA2 gene, IL-22BPi2 and IL-22BPi3 are capable of neutralizing IL-22. The longest isoform, IL-22BPi1, does not bind IL-22, is poorly secreted, and its retention within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is associated with induction of an unfolded protein response (UPR). Therapeutic modulation of IL-22BPi2 and IL-22BPi3 production may be beneficial in IL-22-dependent disorders. Recently, we identified the ER chaperones GRP94 and cyclophilin B in the interactomes of both IL-22BPi1 and IL-22BPi2. In this study, we investigated whether secretion of the IL-22BP isoforms could be modulated by pharmacological targeting of GRP94 and cyclophilin B, either by means of geldanamycin, that binds to the ADP/ATP pocket shared by HSP90 paralogs, or by cyclosporin A, which causes depletion of ER cyclophilin B levels through secretion. We found that geldanamycin and its analogs did not influence secretion of IL-22BPi2 or IL-22BPi3, but significantly enhanced intracellular and secreted levels of IL-22BPi1. The secreted protein was heterogeneously glycosylated, with both high-mannose and complex-type glycoforms present. In addition, cyclosporine A augmented the secretion of IL-22BPi1 and reduced that of IL-22BPi2 and IL-22BPi3. Our data indicate that the ATPase activity of GRP94 and cyclophilin B are instrumental in ER sequestration and degradation of IL-22BPi1, and that blocking these factors mobilizes IL-22BPi1 toward the secretory route
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