119 research outputs found

    Recent Advancements in the Recovery and Reuse of Organic Solvents Using Novel Nanomaterial-Based Membranes for Renewable Energy Applications

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    The energy crisis in the world is increasing rapidly owing to the shortage of fossil fuel reserves. Climate change and an increase in global warming necessitates a change in focus from petroleum-based fuels to renewable fuels such as biofuels. The remodeling of existing separation processes using various nanomaterials is of a growing interest to industrial separation methods. Recently, the design of membrane technologies has been the most focused research area concerning fermentation broth to enhance performance efficiency, while recovering those byproducts to be used as value added fuels. Specifically, the use of novel nano material membranes, which brings about a selective permeation of the byproducts, such as organic solvent, from the fermentation broth, positively affects the fermentation kinetics by eliminating the issue of product inhibition. In this review, which and how membrane-based technologies using novel materials can improve the separation performance of organic solvents is considered. In particular, technical approaches suggested in previous studies are discussed with the goal of emphasizing benefits and problems faced in order to direct research towards an optimized membrane separation performance for renewable fuel production on a commercial scale

    Infections averted by a comprehensive HIV prevention intervention and its cost-effectiveness: A prospective cohort study of persons who inject drugs in Delhi, India

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    This paper presents the cost-effectiveness of a WHO-recommended harm-reduction programme implemented among a cohort of persons who inject drugs in Delhi, India. We estimate the number of infections averted using Bernoulli process model and calculate cost-effectiveness ratio as the total programme cost per infection averted. The intervention averted 996 HIV infections over 36 months, with a cost-effectiveness ratio of INR 24,763 (US$ 476) per infection averted per year. The first phase, when HIV testing and counselling were initiated, was more cost-effective than the second phase when full intervention package, including needle-syringe exchange, condom distribution, harm-reduction education, etc., was implemented

    Recent Advancements in the Recovery and Reuse of Organic Solvents Using Novel Nanomaterial-Based Membranes for Renewable Energy Applications

    No full text
    The energy crisis in the world is increasing rapidly owing to the shortage of fossil fuel reserves. Climate change and an increase in global warming necessitates a change in focus from petroleum-based fuels to renewable fuels such as biofuels. The remodeling of existing separation processes using various nanomaterials is of a growing interest to industrial separation methods. Recently, the design of membrane technologies has been the most focused research area concerning fermentation broth to enhance performance efficiency, while recovering those byproducts to be used as value added fuels. Specifically, the use of novel nano material membranes, which brings about a selective permeation of the byproducts, such as organic solvent, from the fermentation broth, positively affects the fermentation kinetics by eliminating the issue of product inhibition. In this review, which and how membrane-based technologies using novel materials can improve the separation performance of organic solvents is considered. In particular, technical approaches suggested in previous studies are discussed with the goal of emphasizing benefits and problems faced in order to direct research towards an optimized membrane separation performance for renewable fuel production on a commercial scale

    Synergistic Antiviral Effects of Metal Oxides and Carbon Nanotubes

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    In this research, the synergistic antiviral effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and metal oxides (MO) in the form of novel hybrid structures (MO-CNTs) are presented. Raw CNTs, Ni(OH)2, Fe2O3 and MnO2, as well as Ni(OH)2-CNT, Fe2O3-CNT and MnO2-CNT were explored in this study against Escherichia. coli MS2 bacteriophage, which was used as a virus surrogate. The nano particles were synthesized and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Kinetic parameters such as the LD50 (lethal dose to kill 50% of the population), T50 and T80 (time taken to kill 50% and 80% of the population), SGR (specific growth rate) and IRD (initial rate of deactivation of the population) were also studied to examine the antiviral efficacy of these nanomaterials. Among all the nanomaterials, Ni(OH)2-CNT was the most effective antiviral agent followed by Fe2O3-CNT, MnO2-CNT, raw CNTs, Ni(OH)2, Fe2O3 and MnO2. When comparing the metal oxide-CNTs to the raw CNTs, the average enhancement was 20.2%. The average antiviral activity enhancement of the MO-CNTs were between 50 and 54% higher than the MO itself. When compared to the raw CNTs, the average enhancement over all the MO-CNTs was 20.2%. The kinetic studies showed that the LD50 of Ni(OH)2-CNT was the lowest (16µg/mL), which implies that it was the most toxic of all the compounds studied. The LD50 of Ni(OH)2, Fe2O3 and MnO2 were 17.3×, 14.5× and 10.8× times greater than their corresponding hybrids with the CNTs. The synergistic mechanism involved the entrapment of phage viruses by the nano structured CNTs leading to structural damage along with toxicity to phage from the release of MO ions. The metal oxide-CNT nano hybrids developed in this project are promising candidates in applications such as antiviral coatings, nanocomposites, adsorbents and as components of personal protection gears

    Abstracts of National Conference on Research and Developments in Material Processing, Modelling and Characterization 2020

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    This book presents the abstracts of the papers presented to the Online National Conference on Research and Developments in Material Processing, Modelling and Characterization 2020 (RDMPMC-2020) held on 26th and 27th August 2020 organized by the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Science in Association with the Department of Production and Industrial Engineering, National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India. Conference Title: National Conference on Research and Developments in Material Processing, Modelling and Characterization 2020Conference Acronym: RDMPMC-2020Conference Date: 26–27 August 2020Conference Location: Online (Virtual Mode)Conference Organizer: Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology JamshedpurCo-organizer: Department of Production and Industrial Engineering, National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, IndiaConference Sponsor: TEQIP-

    The inverse care law re-examined: a global perspective

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    An inverse care law persists in almost all low-income and middle-income countries, whereby socially disadvantaged people receive less, and lower-quality, health care despite having greater need. By contrast, a disproportionate care law persists in high-income countries, whereby socially disadvantaged people receive more health care, but of worse quality and insufficient quantity to meet their additional needs. Both laws are caused not only by financial barriers and fragmented health insurance systems but also by social inequalities in care seeking and co-investment as well as the costs and benefits of health care. Investing in more integrated universal health coverage and stronger primary care, delivered in proportion to need, can improve population health and reduce health inequality. However, trade-offs sometimes exist between health policy objectives. Health-care technologies, policies, and resourcing should be subjected to distributional analysis of their equity impacts, to ensure the objective of reducing health inequalities is kept in sight

    Breast and prostate cancers harbor common somatic copy number alterations that consistently differ by race and are associated with survival

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    BACKGROUND: Pan-cancer studies of somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) have demonstrated common SCNA patterns across cancer types, but despite demonstrable differences in aggressiveness of some cancers by race, pan-cancer SCNA variation by race has not been explored. This study investigated a) racial differences in SCNAs in both breast and prostate cancer, b) the degree to which they are shared across cancers, and c) the impact of these shared, race-differentiated SCNAs on cancer survival. METHODS: Utilizing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), SCNAs were identified using GISTIC 2.0, and in each tumor type, differences in SCNA magnitude between African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA) were tested using linear regression. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the copy number of genes residing in race-differentiated SCNAs shared between tumor types was used to identify SCNA-defined patient groups, and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for association between those groups and overall/progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: We identified SCNAs that differed by race in breast (n = 58 SCNAs; permutation p \u3c 10(- 4)) and prostate tumors (n = 78 SCNAs; permutation p = 0.006). Six race-differentiated SCNAs common to breast and prostate found at chromosomes 5q11.2-q14.1, 5q15-q21.1, 8q21.11-q21.13, 8q21.3-q24.3, 11q22.3, and 13q12.3-q21.3 had consistent differences by race across both tumor types, and all six were of higher magnitude in AAs, with the chromosome 8q regions being the only amplifications. Higher magnitude copy number differences in AAs were also identified at two of these race-differentiated SCNAs in two additional hormonally-driven tumor types: endometrial (8q21.3-q24.3 and 13q12.3-q21.3) and ovarian (13q12.3-q21.3) cancers. Race differentiated SCNA-defined patient groups were significantly associated with survival differences in both cancer types, and these groups also differentiated within triple negative breast cancers based on PFS. While the frequency of the SCNA-defined patient groups differed by race, their effects on survival did not. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified race-differentiated SCNAs shared by two related cancers. The association of SCNA-defined patient groups with survival demonstrates the clinical significance of combinations of these race-differentiated genomic aberrations, and the higher frequency of these alterations in AA relative to EA patients may explain racial disparities in risk of aggressive breast and prostate cancer

    KrishiPustak: A Social Networking System for Low- Literate Farmers

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    ABSTRACT With the wide penetration of mobile internet, social networking (SN) systems are becoming increasingly popular in the developing world. However, most SN sites are text heavy, and are therefore unusable by low-literate populations. Here we ask what would an SN application for low-literate users look like and how would it be used? We designed and deployed KrishiPustak, an audio-visual SN mobile application for low-literate farming populations in rural India. Over a four month deployment, 306 farmers registered through the phones of eight agricultural mediators making 514 posts and 180 replies. We conducted interviews with farmers and mediators and analyzed the content to understand system usage and to drive iterative design. The context of mediated use and agricultural framing had a powerful impact on system understanding (what it was for) and usage. Overall, KrishiPustak was useful and usable, but none-the-less we identify a number of design recommendations for similar SN systems

    Socioeconomic inequality in life expectancy in India

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    Introduction Concern for health inequalities is an important driver of health policy in India; however, much of the empirical evidence regarding health inequalities in the country is piecemeal focusing only on specific diseases or on access to particular treatments. This study estimates inequalities in health across the whole life course for the entire Indian population. These estimates are used to calculate the socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy at birth in the population. Methods Population mortality data from the Indian Sample Registration System were combined with data on mortality rates by wealth quintile from the National Family Health Survey to calculate wealth quintile specific mortality rates. Results were calculated separately for males and females as well as for urban and rural populations. Life tables were constructed for each subpopulation and used to calculate distributions of life expectancy at birth by wealth quintile. Absolute gap and relative gap indices of inequality were used to quantify the health disparity in terms of life expectancy at birth between the richest and poorest fifths of households. results Life expectancy at birth was 65.1 years for the poorest fifth of households in India as compared with 72.7 years for the richest fifth of households. This constituted an absolute gap of 7.6 years and a relative gap of 11.7 %. Women had both higher life expectancy at birth and narrower wealth-related disparities in life expectancy than men. Life expectancy at birth was higher across the wealth distribution in urban households as compared with rural households with inequalities in life expectancy widest for men living in urban areas and narrowest for women living in urban areas. Conclusion As India progresses towards Universal Health Coverage, the baseline social distributions of health estimated in this study will allow policy makers to target and monitor the health equity impacts of health policies introduced
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