494 research outputs found

    Dynamic correlations in stochastic rotation dynamics

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    The dynamic structure factor, vorticity and entropy density dynamic correlation functions are measured for Stochastic Rotation Dynamics (SRD), a particle based algorithm for fluctuating fluids. This allows us to obtain unbiased values for the longitudinal transport coefficients such as thermal diffusivity and bulk viscosity. The results are in good agreement with earlier numerical and theoretical results, and it is shown for the first time that the bulk viscosity is indeed zero for this algorithm. In addition, corrections to the self-diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity arising from the breakdown of the molecular chaos approximation at small mean free paths are analyzed. In addition to deriving the form of the leading correlation corrections to these transport coefficients, the probabilities that two and three particles remain collision partners for consecutive time steps are derived analytically in the limit of small mean free path. The results of this paper verify that we have an excellent understanding of the SRD algorithm at the kinetic level and that analytic expressions for the transport coefficients derived elsewhere do indeed provide a very accurate description of the SRD fluid.Comment: 33 pages including 16 figure

    Particle-Based Mesoscale Hydrodynamic Techniques

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    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and multi-particle collision (MPC) dynamics are powerful tools to study mesoscale hydrodynamic phenomena accompanied by thermal fluctuations. To understand the advantages of these types of mesoscale simulation techniques in more detail, we propose new two methods, which are intermediate between DPD and MPC -- DPD with a multibody thermostat (DPD-MT), and MPC-Langevin dynamics (MPC-LD). The key features are applying a Langevin thermostat to the relative velocities of pairs of particles or multi-particle collisions, and whether or not to employ collision cells. The viscosity of MPC-LD is derived analytically, in very good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.Comment: 7 pages, 2 figures, 1 tabl

    High-energy photoemission on Fe3O4: Small polaron physics and the Verwey transition

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    We have studied the electronic structure and charge ordering (Verwey) transition of magnetite (Fe3O4) by soft x-ray photoemission. Due to the enhanced probing depth and the use of different surface preparations we are able to distinguish surface and volume effects in the spectra. The pseudogap behavior of the intrinsic spectra and its temperature dependence give evidence for the existence of strongly bound small polarons consistent with both dc and optical conductivity. Together with other recent structural and theoretical results our findings support a picture in which the Verwey transition contains elements of a cooperative Jahn-Teller effect, stabilized by local Coulomb interaction

    Multi-Particle Collision Dynamics -- a Particle-Based Mesoscale Simulation Approach to the Hydrodynamics of Complex Fluids

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    In this review, we describe and analyze a mesoscale simulation method for fluid flow, which was introduced by Malevanets and Kapral in 1999, and is now called multi-particle collision dynamics (MPC) or stochastic rotation dynamics (SRD). The method consists of alternating streaming and collision steps in an ensemble of point particles. The multi-particle collisions are performed by grouping particles in collision cells, and mass, momentum, and energy are locally conserved. This simulation technique captures both full hydrodynamic interactions and thermal fluctuations. The first part of the review begins with a description of several widely used MPC algorithms and then discusses important features of the original SRD algorithm and frequently used variations. Two complementary approaches for deriving the hydrodynamic equations and evaluating the transport coefficients are reviewed. It is then shown how MPC algorithms can be generalized to model non-ideal fluids, and binary mixtures with a consolute point. The importance of angular-momentum conservation for systems like phase-separated liquids with different viscosities is discussed. The second part of the review describes a number of recent applications of MPC algorithms to study colloid and polymer dynamics, the behavior of vesicles and cells in hydrodynamic flows, and the dynamics of viscoelastic fluids

    Approximate Ginzburg-Landau solution for the regular flux-line lattice. Circular cell method

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    A variational model is proposed to describe the magnetic properties of type-II superconductors in the entire field range between Hc1H_{c1} and Hc2H_{c2} for any values of the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ>1/2\kappa>1/\sqrt{2}. The hexagonal unit cell of the triangular flux-line lattice is replaced by a circle of the same area, and the periodic solutions to the Ginzburg-Landau equations within this cell are approximated by rotationally symmetric solutions. The Ginzburg-Landau equations are solved by a trial function for the order parameter. The calculated spatial distributions of the order parameter and the magnetic field are compared with the corresponding distributions obtained by numerical solution of the Ginzburg-Landau equations. The comparison reveals good agreement with an accuracy of a few percent for all κ\kappa values exceeding κ≈1\kappa \approx 1. The model can be extended to anisotropic superconductors when the vortices are directed along one of the principal axes. The reversible magnetization curve is calculated and an analytical formula for the magnetization is proposed. At low fields, the theory reduces to the London approach at κ≫1\kappa \gg 1, provided that the exact value of Hc1H_{c1} is used. At high fields, our model reproduces the main features of the well-known Abrikosov theory. The magnetic field dependences of the reversible magnetization found numerically and by our variational method practically coincide. The model also refines the limits of some approximations which have been widely used. The calculated magnetization curves are in a good agreement with experimental data on high-Tc_c superconductors.Comment: 8 pages, RevTex, 6 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.
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