1,270 research outputs found

    Dense sampling of bird diversity increases power of comparative genomics (vol 587, pg 252, 2020)

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    Route and duration of antibiotic therapy in acute cellulitis: A systematic review and meta-analyses considering the effectiveness and harms of antibiotic treatment

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    Objectives Compared with guideline recommendations, antibiotic overuse is common in treating cellulitis. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses on antibiotic route and duration of treatment for cellulitis in adults and children. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and trial registries from inception to Dec 11, 2019 for interventional and observational studies of antibiotic treatment for cellulitis. Exclusions included case series/reports, pre-septal/orbital cellulitis and non-English language articles. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to produce summary relative risk (RR) estimates for our primary outcome of clinical response. PROSPERO CRD42018100602. Results We included 47/8423 articles, incorporating data from eleven trials (1855 patients) in two meta-analyses. The overall risk of bias was moderate. Only two trials compared the same antibiotic agent in each group. We found no evidence of difference in clinical response rates for antibiotic route or duration (RR(oral:IV)=1.12, 95%CI 0.98–1.27, I2=32% and RR(shorter:longer)=0.99, 95%CI 0•96–1.03, I2 = 0%, respectively). Findings were consistent in observational studies. Follow-up data beyond 30 days were sparse. Conclusions The evidence base for antibiotic treatment decisions in cellulitis is flawed by biased comparisons, short follow-up and lack of data around harms of antibiotic overuse. Future research should focus on developing patient-tailored antibiotic prescribing for cellulitis to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use

    Collective cell migration and metastases induced by an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in Drosophila intestinal tumors.

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    Metastasis underlies the majority of cancer-related deaths yet remains poorly understood due, in part, to the lack of models in vivo. Here we show that expression of the EMT master inducer Snail in primary adult Drosophila intestinal tumors leads to the dissemination of tumor cells and formation of macrometastases. Snail drives an EMT in tumor cells, which, although retaining some epithelial markers, subsequently break through the basal lamina of the midgut, undergo a collective migration and seed polyclonal metastases. While metastases re-epithelialize over time, we found that early metastases are remarkably mesenchymal, discarding the requirement for a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition for early stages of metastatic growth. Our results demonstrate the formation of metastases in adult flies, and identify a key role for partial-EMTs in driving it. This model opens the door to investigate the basic mechanisms underlying metastasis, in a powerful in vivo system suited for rapid genetic and drug screens

    Tumour exosomal CEMIP protein promotes cancer cell colonization in brain metastasis

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    The development of effective therapies against brain metastasis is currently hindered by limitations in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving it. Here we define the contributions of tumour-secreted exosomes to brain metastatic colonization and demonstrate that pre-conditioning the brain microenvironment with exosomes from brain metastatic cells enhances cancer cell outgrowth. Proteomic analysis identified cell migration-inducing and hyaluronan-binding protein (CEMIP) as elevated in exosomes from brain metastatic but not lung or bone metastatic cells. CEMIP depletion in tumour cells impaired brain metastasis, disrupting invasion and tumour cell association with the brain vasculature, phenotypes rescued by pre-conditioning the brain microenvironment with CEMIP exosomes. Moreover, uptake of CEMIP+ exosomes by brain endothelial and microglial cells induced endothelial cell branching and inflammation in the perivascular niche by upregulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines encoded by Ptgs2, Tnf and Ccl/Cxcl, known to promote brain vascular remodelling and metastasis. CEMIP was elevated in tumour tissues and exosomes from patients with brain metastasis and predicted brain metastasis progression and patient survival. Collectively, our findings suggest that targeting exosomal CEMIP could constitute a future avenue for the prevention and treatment of brain metastasis

    Cancer Stem Cells: From Birth to Death

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    Abstract Conspicuous investigations have proven the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the onset and progression of a plethora of liquid and solid neoplasms. CSCs are endowed with the capability of initiating tumor growth and becoming dormant at distant organ sites just waiting for optimal conditions amenable for metastatic outgrowth. This cancer subpopulation is inherently resistant to anticancer therapeutics, and its targeting could avoid metastatic disease, which is largely incurable, and clinical relapses. CSCs are considered the Achilles heel of cancer. However, many efforts are necessary to identify univocal CSC markers as well as specific CSC biomarkers of therapeutic response. Here, we summarize CSCs’ peculiarities and highlight novel anticancer compounds coping with the hallmarks of CSCs, comprising the resistance to cell death, their quiescent state, the immune suppression, the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and their metabolic adaptation to a hostile microenvironment

    Height and timing of growth spurt during puberty in young people living with vertically acquired HIV in Europe and Thailand.

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    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe growth during puberty in young people with vertically acquired HIV. DESIGN: Pooled data from 12 paediatric HIV cohorts in Europe and Thailand. METHODS: One thousand and ninety-four children initiating a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or boosted protease inhibitor based regimen aged 1-10 years were included. Super Imposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) models described growth from age 8 years using three parameters (average height, timing and shape of the growth spurt), dependent on age and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) (WHO references) at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Multivariate regression explored characteristics associated with these three parameters. RESULTS: At ART initiation, median age and HAZ was 6.4 [interquartile range (IQR): 2.8, 9.0] years and -1.2 (IQR: -2.3 to -0.2), respectively. Median follow-up was 9.1 (IQR: 6.9, 11.4) years. In girls, older age and lower HAZ at ART initiation were independently associated with a growth spurt which occurred 0.41 (95% confidence interval 0.20-0.62) years later in children starting ART age 6 to 10 years compared with 1 to 2 years and 1.50 (1.21-1.78) years later in those starting with HAZ less than -3 compared with HAZ at least -1. Later growth spurts in girls resulted in continued height growth into later adolescence. In boys starting ART with HAZ less than -1, growth spurts were later in children starting ART in the oldest age group, but for HAZ at least -1, there was no association with age. Girls and boys who initiated ART with HAZ at least -1 maintained a similar height to the WHO reference mean. CONCLUSION: Stunting at ART initiation was associated with later growth spurts in girls. Children with HAZ at least -1 at ART initiation grew in height at the level expected in HIV negative children of a comparable age

    Levy-like movement patterns of metastatic cancer cells revealed in microfabricated systems and implicated in vivo

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    Metastatic cancer cells differ from their non-metastatic counterparts not only in terms of molecular composition and genetics, but also by the very strategy they employ for locomotion. Here, we analyzed large-scale statistics for cells migrating on linear microtracks to show that metastatic cancer cells follow a qualitatively different movement strategy than their non-invasive counterparts. The trajectories of metastatic cells display clusters of small steps that are interspersed with long "flights". Such movements are characterized by heavy-tailed, truncated power law distributions of persistence times and are consistent with the Levy walks that are also often employed by animal predators searching for scarce prey or food sources. In contrast, non-metastatic cancerous cells perform simple diffusive movements. These findings are supported by preliminary experiments with cancer cells migrating away from primary tumors in vivo. The use of chemical inhibitors targeting actin-binding proteins allows for "reprogramming" the Levy walks into either diffusive or ballistic movements
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