109 research outputs found

    Effect of Cutting Size and Basal Heat on Rooting of Micromeria fruticulosa Stem Cuttings

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    Micromeria fruticulosa (Bertol.) Grande is a small pulviniform shrub, belonging to the Labiates, and characterized by twisted stems and pink-purple flowers. Endemic to Campania and Sicily (Italy), M. fruticulosa grows from sea level to 600 m altitude. This specie might be considered an excellent native plant for landscape purposes in Mediterranean areas because of its long flowering period, extending from November to June, and its tolerance to heat and drought. The exploitation of wild plants for ornamental purposes implies knowledge on the factors influencing the propagation methods. Root development of stem cuttings of M. fruticulosa was investigated in relation to basal heat and cutting size. Softwood terminal cuttings of a clone grown in Sicily were trimmed to two sizes: short (3 cm) or long (6 cm) length. Propagation was performed in unheated greenhouse covered with clear polyethylene and external 70% shade-cloth. To verify the rooting response to basal heat, half of the cuttings were placed on a basal heated bench (22 ± 2 °C constant temperature) while the remaining were placed on an unheated bench. Acclimatized rooted cuttings were thereafter transplanted into each plastic pot (diameter 16 cm). Plants were thereafter transplanted in the open field and were evaluated for their ornamental value. Basal heat promoted earlier rooting and positively affected adventitious root formation. Six cm long cuttings exposed to basal heat exhibited the best development in terms of number and length of adventitious roots. Flowering plants derived from 6 cm long cuttings exposed to basal heat showed the highest number of flowering branches and flowers per plant

    Improved Propagation and Growing Techniques for Oleander Nursery Production

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    In the first trial, we examined rooting of stem cuttings in relation to number of nodes and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) treatment in several Nerium oleander clones grown in Sicily. In a second trial, we tested the effect of different forcing dates and shading on oleander plants for gardens and natural landscapes. Three- and four-node cuttings, ranging in length from 10 to 14 cm, were significantly superior to two-node cuttings (8–10 cm long) in terms of rooting percentage and number of roots per cutting. The application of IBA improved rooting percentage and root number as compared to untreated control. Irrespective of IBA, rooting percentages ranged from 94% in clone 1 to 52% in clone 4. Shaded plants forced in October were significantly higher than those forced in November and in December. Beginning of flowering was delayed in unforced plants. Plants forced in October flowered significantly sooner (first decade of March) than unforced ones (first decade of May) and reached complete flowering almost two months earlier (last week of March).Shading had little effect on plants forced in October and in November as compared to unshaded plants in terms of start of flowering, but it slightly hastened beginning of flowering of December forced plants as compared to their unshaded counterparts

    Soil Solarization and Calcium Cyanamide Affect Plant Vigor, Yield, Nutritional Traits, and Nutraceutical Compounds of Strawberry Grown in a Protected Cultivation System

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    Soil solarization is a hydrothermal procedure of disinfesting soil of soilborne diseases and pests. Solarization can be combined with many other chemical or non-chemical alternatives to afford integrated pest and diseases management or improve plant yield. Calcium cyanamide (CaCN2) is a fertilizer used in agriculture sector and is also effective in suppressing soilborne pathogens. The present study assessed the influences of different pre-plant CaCN2 dosages on strawberry grown on solarized or non-solarized soil. Soil solarization and 500 kg ha−1 CaCN2 significantly increased early marketable yield by 105.3%, total marketable yield by 53.0% and firmness by 3.0%, respectively compared with the control (no solarization × 0 kg ha−1 of CaCN2). Exposing solarized plots to CaCN2 at 1000 kg ha−1 significantly increased fruit ascorbic acid content by 77.5% and phenolic content by 13.3% compared with fruits from control plants. Overall, plants grown on solarized soil performed better than those cultivated on no-solarized plots. Plants grown on soil treated with a dosage of 500 or 1000 kg ha−1 CaCN2 increased plant height, number of shoots plant−1, number of leaves plant−1, root collar diameter, plant visual quality, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity compared to control plants. Fruits from plants grown on soil exposed to CaCN2 with a dosage of 500 and 1000 kg ha−1 showed a lower N fruit content (5.4 and 19.5%, respectively) than control plants (non-treated control)

    Cutting Type and IBA Treatment Duration Affect <i>Teucrium fruticans</i> Adventitious Root Quality

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    Root development of stem cuttings of Silver Germander (Teucrium fruticans) was investigated in relation to cutting type and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) treatment. Terminal cuttings of a clone grown in Sicily were trimmed to three types: terminal cuttings with apex (TWA), terminal cuttings without apex (TWOA) or sub-terminal cuttings (ST). To verify the cutting response to exogenous auxin, cuttings were dipped to a 2.0 cm depth in a 0.5% indole-3-butyric acid solution for 0, 5 or 7 minutes. Overall percent survival was 97 to 98%. Rooting percent, root number and root length were affected by cutting type and indole-3-butyric acid treatment. In general, TWA cuttings demonstrated a higher capacity to form roots than cuttings without apex (TWOA and ST cuttings). In absence of indole-3-butyric acid treatment, TWA and ST cuttings gave higher rooting percentages than TWOA cuttings. Exposing cuttings to indole-3-butyric acid improved percent rooting, number of roots per cutting and root length. The best results in terms of rooting percentage and root number per cuttings were obtained with TWA cuttings in combination with 7 min indole-3-butyric acid basal dip. However, cuttings taken farther down the stem, such as sub-terminal cuttings gave satisfactory rooting performance as well. We suggest that the use of all cutting types tested associated to indole-3-butyric acid basal dip for 5 or 7 min may be beneficial to propagators wishing to produce T. fruticans rooted cuttings with well-developed root system

    Hybrids and allied species as potential rootstocks for eggplant: Effect of grafting on vigour, yield and overall fruit quality traits

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    Grafting of fruiting vegetables is an effective technique to overcome pests and diseases in modern cropping systems and it is often used to improve yield and fruit quality. Eggplant is an important vegetable crop that benefits significantly from grafting. In this regards, the exploitation, valorization and breeding of new rootstock genotypes as possible substitute to those commonly used (Solanum torvum and tomato hybrids) would permit an intensive eggplant crop system in those situations where a rootstock rotation is required. In the present article, we study the effects of several potential rootstocks including both wild/allied species of eggplant [S. torvum (STO), S. macrocarpon (SMA), S. aethiopicum (accession SASI), S. aethiopicum (accession SASa2), S. paniculatum (jurubeba) (SPA) and S. indicum (SIN)] and Msa 2/2 E7 and 460 CAL. eggplant hybrids on plant vigor, yield and fruit characteristics of eggplant F1 hybrid (‘Birgah’), in two spring-summer growing seasons (2014 and 2015). SPA and the hybrids Msa 2/2 E7 and 460 CAL. displayed a high percentage of grafting success. ‘Birgah’ scion grafted onto the two above-mentioned rootstocks showed a notable vigour and yield. Both rootstocks did not promote any unfavorable effects on apparent fruit quality traits and overall fruit composition. Furthermore, the concentration of glycoalkaloids in the fruit remained below the recommended safety value (200 mg/100 g of dw). These results suggest that SPA and Msa 2/2 E7 and 460 CAL. eggplant hybrids might represent a potential rootstock alternative to S. torvum

    Solanum aethiopicum gr. gilo and Its Interspecific Hybrid with S. melongena as Alternative Rootstocks for Eggplant: Effects on Vigor, Yield, and Fruit Physicochemical Properties of Cultivar 'Scarlatti'

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    Grafting is generally considered eective in ameliorating vegetable crop tolerance to bioticand abiotic stresses. The use of interspecific hybrid as rootstock for eggplant may represent a valid alternative approach to enhance eggplant performance. However, studies on the eects of different rootstocks on eggplant plant vigor, yield, and fruit quality traits often show conflicting results. Thus, an experiment was performed in two spring\u2013summer growing seasons (2014 and 2015) by grafting eggplant 'Scarlatti' F1 hybrid on two accessions of S. aethiopicum gr. gilo and on the interspecific hybrid S. melongena x S. aehtiopicum gr. gilo in comparison to the most common eggplant rootstock S. torvum. Results indicate that S. melongena x S. aethiopicum gr. gilo interspecific hybrid and S. torvum improved grafting success, plant vigor, early flowering and yield in 'Scarlatti' F1 scion. All rootstocks tested did not negatively influence fruit apparent quality traits and fruit quality composition. Moreover, fruit glycoalkaloids content remained below the recommended threshold value. These findings suggest that the use of S. melongena x S. aethiopicum gr. gilo interspecific hybrid as rootstock may be a good alternative to the most commonly used S. torvum

    Micropropagation of Genista aetnensis [(Raf. ex Biv.)DC]

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    Genista aetnensis [(Raf. ex Biv.)DC] is a large deciduous shrub or small tree native to the Italian islands of Sardinia and Sicily. Being winter hardy and characterized by high plasticity in altitude and ecology, the species is grown in gardens and landscaping, both for flower and for its attractive shape. Genista species are generally propagate by seed or semi-hardwood cuttings. In this report an efficient in vitro technique for propagation of G. aetnensis was investigated. Multiple shoots were induced on nodal segments of a mature plant of Genista aetnensis. The Murashige and Skoog medium, augmented with different concentrations of N-6-benzyladenine either singly or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid, as potential medium for shoot multiplication by nodal segments was tested. In the following experiment equal molar concentrations of four cytokinins (2-isopenthenyladenine, kinetin, zeatin and N-6-benzyladenine) were tested for ability to induce axillary shoot development from single node stem segments. The highest rate of axillary shoot proliferation was induced on the medium supplemented with 0.44 ”M BA. Growth regulator requirements for shoot proliferation in G. aetnensis were satisfied by BA alone. Explants were divided, subcultured and continued to proliferate shoots. A proliferation rate of 3.5 shoots per single node explants every four weeks occurred. Seven indole-3-acetic acid concentrations (0, 0.23, 0.45, 0.91, 1.82, 3.64 or 7.29 ”M) were tested to determine the optimum conditions for in vitro rooting of microshoots. The highest rooting percentage was obtained with indole-3-acetic acid at 3.64 mM (57%). Eighty percent of the in vitro rooted plantlets were successfully established in soil. This micropropagation system of G. aetnensis based on axillary shoot development from nodal segments followed by in vitro rooting should be preferred for rapid and efficient mass propagation of selected clones and could represent an alternative method to sexual and conventional asexual propagation

    Interactive Effects of Genotype and Molybdenum Supply on Yield and Overall Fruit Quality of Tomato

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    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential trace element for plant growth, development, and production. However, there is little known about the function and effects of molybdenum in tomato plants. The present study assessed the influences of different Mo concentrations on four tomato F1 hybrids (“Bybal” F1, “Tyty” F1, “Paride” F1, and “Ornela” F1) grown using a soilless system with different Mo levels [0.0, 0.5 (standard NS), 2.0, and 4.0 ÎŒmol L−1, respectively]. The crop yield, plant vigor, fruit skin color, TA, fruit water content as well as the accumulation of SSC, and some antioxidant compounds such as lycopene, polyphenols and ascorbic acid were evaluated. The minerals concentration, including nitrogen (N), Mo, iron (Fe), and copper (Cu), were measured in tomato fruits. Results revealed that tomato plants grown with 2.0 ÎŒmol Mo L−1 compared to plants grown with 0.5 ÎŒmol Mo L−1 incurred a significant increase of total yield by 21.7%, marketable yield by 9.1%, aboveground biomass by 16.7%, plant height at 50 DAT by 6.5%, polyphenol content by 3.5%, ascorbic acid by 1.0%, SSC by 3.5%, N fruit content by 24.8%, Mo fruit content by 20.0%, and Fe fruit content by 60.5%. However, the Mo concentration did not significantly influence the average fruit weight, b* fruit skin color coordinate and TA. Furthermore, tomato fruits from plants grown with 2.0 ÎŒmol Mo L−1 showed a lower Cu fruit content (16.1%) than fruits from plants grown with 0.5 ÎŒmol Mo L−1 (standard NS). Consequently, our study highlights the different behavior of the tomato genotypes tested when subjected to different levels of Mo concentration in the nutrient solution. Nevertheless, taking all in consideration our results clearly suggest that a Mo fertilization of 2.0 ÎŒmol Mo L−1 effectively enhance crop performance and overall fruit quality of tomato

    Iodine Biofortification Counters Micronutrient Deficiency and Improve Functional Quality of Open Field Grown Curly Endive

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    Human iodine (I) shortage disorders are documented as an imperative world-wide health issue for a great number of people. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends I consumption through ingestion of seafood and biofortified food such as vegetables. The current work was carried out to appraise the effects of different I concentrations (0, 50, 250, and 500 mg L-1), supplied via foliar spray on curly endive grown in the fall or spring–summer season. Head fresh weight, stem diameter, head height, and soluble solid content (SSC) were negatively correlated to I dosage. The highest head dry matter content was recorded in plants supplied with 250 mg I L-1, both in the fall and spring–summer season, and in those cultivated in the fall season and supplied with 50 mg I L-1. The highest ascorbic acid concentration was recorded in plants cultivated in the spring–summer season and biofortified with the highest I dosage. The highest fructose and glucose concentrations in leaf tissues were obtained in plants cultivated in the spring–summer season and treated with 250 mg I L-1. Plants sprayed with 250 mg I L-1 and cultivated in the fall season had the highest I leaf concentration. Overall, our results evidently suggested that an I application of 250 mg L-1 in both growing seasons effectively enhanced plant quality and functional parameters in curly endive plants

    Enteral versus intravenous approach for the sedation of critically ill patients: a randomized and controlled trial

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    Background. ICU patients must be kept conscious, calm, and cooperative even during the critical phases of illness. Enteral administration of sedative drugs might avoid oversedation, and would be as adequate as intravenous for awake patients, with fewer side effects and lower costs. This study compares two sedation strategies, in order to early reach and maintain the light sedation target. Methods. Multicenter, single-blind randomized and controlled trial carried out in 12 Italian ICUs, involving patients with expected mechanical ventilation duration >72 hours at ICU admission and predicted mortality >12% (Simplified Acute Physiology Score II >32 points) during the first 24 ICU hours. Patients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous (midazolam, propofol) or enteral (hydroxyzine, lorazepam, and melatonin) sedation. Primary outcome: percentage of work shifts with an observed Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) = target RASS \ub1 1. Secondary outcomes: protocol feasibility, delirium- and coma-free days, costs of drugs, length of ICU and hospital stay, ICU, hospital, and one-year mortality. Results. 348 patients were enrolled. There were no differences in the primary outcome: enteral 89.8 [74.1-100], intravenous 94.4 [78-100]%, p=0.20. Enteral-treated patients had more protocol violations: 81 (46.6%) vs 7 (4.2%), p<0.01, more self-extubations: 4 (2.4%) vs 14 (8.1%), p=0.03, a lighter sedative target (RASS = 0): 93 [71-100] vs 83 [61-100]%, p<0.01, and lower total costs for drugs: 2.39 [0.75- 9.78] vs 4.15 [1.20 -20.19] \u20ac/day with mechanical ventilation (p=0.01). Conclusions. Although enteral sedation of critically ill patients is cheaper and permits a lighter sedation target, it is not superior to intravenous sedation for reaching the RASS target. Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov, Clinical Trial #NCT01360346, registered 25 March 2011, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01360346. Registered on 25 March 2011
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