10,284 research outputs found

    Level set segmentation of the fetal heart

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    Segmentation of the fetal heart can facilitate the 3D assessment of the cardiac function and structure. Ultrasound acquisition typically results in drop-out artifacts of the chamber walls. This paper presents a level set deformable model to simultaneously segment all four cardiac chambers using region based information. The segmented boundaries are automatically penalized from intersecting at walls with signal dropout. Root mean square errors of the perpendicular distances between the algorithm's delineation and manual tracings are within 7 pixels (<2mm) in 2D and under 3 voxels (<4.5mm) in 3D. The ejection fraction was determined from the 3D dataset. Future work will include further testing on additional datasets and validation on a phantom. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.</p

    Developing expert scientific consensus on the environmental and societal effects of marine artificial structures prior to decommissioning

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    Thousands of artificial (‘human-made’) structures are present in the marine environment, many at or approaching end-of-life and requiring urgent decisions regarding their decommissioning. No consensus has been reached on which decommissioning option(s) result in optimal environmental and societal outcomes, in part, owing to a paucity of evidence from real-world decommissioning case studies. To address this significant challenge, we asked a worldwide panel of scientists to provide their expert opinion. They were asked to identify and characterise the ecosystem effects of artificial structures in the sea, their causes and consequences, and to identify which, if any, should be retained following decommissioning. Experts considered that most of the pressures driving ecological and societal effects from marine artificial structures (MAS) were of medium severity, occur frequently, and are dependent on spatial scale with local-scale effects of greater magnitude than regional effects. The duration of many effects following decommissioning were considered to be relatively short, in the order of days. Overall, environmental effects of structures were considered marginally undesirable, while societal effects marginally desirable. Experts therefore indicated that any decision to leave MAS in place at end-of-life to be more beneficial to society than the natural environment. However, some individual environmental effects were considered desirable and worthy of retention, especially in certain geographic locations, where structures can support improved trophic linkages, increases in tourism, habitat provision, and population size, and provide stability in population dynamics. The expert analysis consensus that the effects of MAS are both negative and positive for the environment and society, gives no strong support for policy change whether removal or retention is favoured until further empirical evidence is available to justify change to the status quo. The combination of desirable and undesirable effects associated with MAS present a significant challenge for policy- and decision-makers in their justification to implement decommissioning options. Decisions may need to be decided on a case-by-case basis accounting for the trade-off in costs and benefits at a local level

    Developing expert scientific consensus on the environmental and societal effects of marine artificial structures prior to decommissioning

    No full text
    Thousands of artificial (‘human-made’) structures are present in the marine environment, many at or approaching end-of-life and requiring urgent decisions regarding their decommissioning. No consensus has been reached on which decommissioning option(s) result in optimal environmental and societal outcomes, in part, owing to a paucity of evidence from real-world decommissioning case studies. To address this significant challenge, we asked a worldwide panel of scientists to provide their expert opinion. They were asked to identify and characterise the ecosystem effects of artificial structures in the sea, their causes and consequences, and to identify which, if any, should be retained following decommissioning. Experts considered that most of the pressures driving ecological and societal effects from marine artificial structures (MAS) were of medium severity, occur frequently, and are dependent on spatial scale with local-scale effects of greater magnitude than regional effects. The duration of many effects following decommissioning were considered to be relatively short, in the order of days. Overall, environmental effects of structures were considered marginally undesirable, while societal effects marginally desirable. Experts therefore indicated that any decision to leave MAS in place at end-of-life to be more beneficial to society than the natural environment. However, some individual environmental effects were considered desirable and worthy of retention, especially in certain geographic locations, where structures can support improved trophic linkages, increases in tourism, habitat provision, and population size, and provide stability in population dynamics. The expert analysis consensus that the effects of MAS are both negative and positive for the environment and society, gives no strong support for policy change whether removal or retention is favoured until further empirical evidence is available to justify change to the status quo. The combination of desirable and undesirable effects associated with MAS present a significant challenge for policy- and decision-makers in their justification to implement decommissioning options. Decisions may need to be decided on a case-by-case basis accounting for the trade-off in costs and benefits at a local level

    Developing expert scientific consensus on the environmental and societal effects of marine artificial structures prior to decommissioning

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    This work was supported by the UK Natural Environment Research Council and the INSITE programme [INSITE SYNTHESIS project, grant number NE/W009889/1].Thousands of artificial (‘human-made’) structures are present in the marine environment, many at or approaching end-of-life and requiring urgent decisions regarding their decommissioning. No consensus has been reached on which decommissioning option(s) result in optimal environmental and societal outcomes, in part, owing to a paucity of evidence from real-world decommissioning case studies. To address this significant challenge, we asked a worldwide panel of scientists to provide their expert opinion. They were asked to identify and characterise the ecosystem effects of artificial structures in the sea, their causes and consequences, and to identify which, if any, should be retained following decommissioning. Experts considered that most of the pressures driving ecological and societal effects from marine artificial structures (MAS) were of medium severity, occur frequently, and are dependent on spatial scale with local-scale effects of greater magnitude than regional effects. The duration of many effects following decommissioning were considered to be relatively short, in the order of days. Overall, environmental effects of structures were considered marginally undesirable, while societal effects marginally desirable. Experts therefore indicated that any decision to leave MAS in place at end-of-life to be more beneficial to society than the natural environment. However, some individual environmental effects were considered desirable and worthy of retention, especially in certain geographic locations, where structures can support improved trophic linkages, increases in tourism, habitat provision, and population size, and provide stability in population dynamics. The expert analysis consensus that the effects of MAS are both negative and positive for the environment and society, gives no strong support for policy change whether removal or retention is favoured until further empirical evidence is available to justify change to the status quo. The combination of desirable and undesirable effects associated with MAS present a significant challenge for policy- and decision-makers in their justification to implement decommissioning options. Decisions may need to be decided on a case-by-case basis accounting for the trade-off in costs and benefits at a local level.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Automatic segmentation of low resolution fetal cardiac data using snakes with shape priors

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    This paper presents a level set deformable model to segment all four chambers of the fet al. heart simultaneously. We show its results in 2D on 53 images taken from only 8 datasets. Due to our lack of sufficient data we built only a mean template from the training data instead of a full Active Shape Model. Using rigid registration the template was registered to unseen images and the snakes were guided by individual chamber priors as they evolved in unison to segment missing cardiac structures in the presence of high noise. Using a leave one out approach most of the segmentation errors are within 3 pixels of manually traced contours.</p

    Level set snake algorithms on the fetal heart

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    The fetal heart has very thin intra-chamber walls which are often not resolved by ultrasound scanners and may drop out as a result of imaging. In order to measure blood volumes from all chambers in isolation, deformable model approaches were used to segment the chambers and fill in the missing structural information. Three level set algorithms in the fetal cardiac segmentation literature (two without and, one with the use of a shape prior) were applied to real ultrasound data. The shape prior term was extracted from the shape prior level set and incorporated into the amorphous snakes for a fairer comparison. To our knowledge this is the first time these existing fetal cardiac non shape based segmentation algoridims have been modified for shape awareness in this way. © 2007 IEEE.</p

    Developing expert scientific consensus on the environmental and societal effects of marine artificial structures prior to decommissioning

    Get PDF
    Thousands of artificial (‘human-made’) structures are present in the marine environment, many at or approaching end-of-life and requiring urgent decisions regarding their decommissioning. No consensus has been reached on which decommissioning option(s) result in optimal environmental and societal outcomes, in part, owing to a paucity of evidence from real-world decommissioning case studies. To address this significant challenge, we asked a worldwide panel of scientists to provide their expert opinion. They were asked to identify and characterise the ecosystem effects of artificial structures in the sea, their causes and consequences, and to identify which, if any, should be retained following decommissioning. Experts considered that most of the pressures driving ecological and societal effects from marine artificial structures (MAS) were of medium severity, occur frequently, and are dependent on spatial scale with local-scale effects of greater magnitude than regional effects. The duration of many effects following decommissioning were considered to be relatively short, in the order of days. Overall, environmental effects of structures were considered marginally undesirable, while societal effects marginally desirable. Experts therefore indicated that any decision to leave MAS in place at end-of-life to be more beneficial to society than the natural environment. However, some individual environmental effects were considered desirable and worthy of retention, especially in certain geographic locations, where structures can support improved trophic linkages, increases in tourism, habitat provision, and population size, and provide stability in population dynamics. The expert analysis consensus that the effects of MAS are both negative and positive for the environment and society, gives no strong support for policy change whether removal or retention is favoured until further empirical evidence is available to justify change to the status quo. The combination of desirable and undesirable effects associated with MAS present a significant challenge for policy- and decision-makers in their justification to implement decommissioning options. Decisions may need to be decided on a case-by-case basis accounting for the trade-off in costs and benefits at a local level

    Features of acute COVID-19 associated with post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 phenotypes: results from the IMPACC study

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    Post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) is a significant public health concern. We describe Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) on 590 participants prospectively assessed from hospital admission for COVID-19 through one year after discharge. Modeling identified 4 PRO clusters based on reported deficits (minimal, physical, mental/cognitive, and multidomain), supporting heterogenous clinical presentations in PASC, with sub-phenotypes associated with female sex and distinctive comorbidities. During the acute phase of disease, a higher respiratory SARS-CoV-2 viral burden and lower Receptor Binding Domain and Spike antibody titers were associated with both the physical predominant and the multidomain deficit clusters. A lower frequency of circulating B lymphocytes by mass cytometry (CyTOF) was observed in the multidomain deficit cluster. Circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) was significantly elevated in the mental/cognitive predominant and the multidomain clusters. Future efforts to link PASC to acute anti-viral host responses may help to better target treatment and prevention of PASC
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