2,472 research outputs found

    To unite or disconnect : AmotL2 in tubulogenesis and tumor invasion

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    For an epithelial- or endothelial cell sheet or ‐tissue to form, individual cells must come together unite and connect. Contacts to adjacent cells and underlying matrix must be initiated, and the junctional proteins mediating the contacts must be further linked to intracellular cytoskeletal networks. By connecting neighboring cells into one unit, contractile actomyosin filaments allow for a closely interlinked, but yet dynamic tissue. Eventhough essential for developmental processes such as organ formation, the exact mechanism of how the cell‐cell junctions connect to the contractile actomyosin network has not yet been completely revealed. In the papers of this thesis, we identify the protein Angiomotin Like 2 (AmotL2 p100) as a linker between the contractile radial actin filaments and VE‐cadherin at the adherens junctions. Furthermore, AmotL2 p100 enables controlled‐ and synchronized morphological alterations of individual cells, which can further result in the creation of new tissue level structures, for example through tubulogenesis. We show the radial AmotL2‐mediated actin filaments to be crucial for force‐generation during morphological transformation and further aortic lumen expansion. Morphological transformations usually require organization and collaboration of several processes, such as formation/disassembly of cell‐cell and cell‐ECM contacts, establishment/disruption of apical-basal polarity and polymerization/disassembly of cytoskeletal filaments. Just like proper regulation of those intra‐ and inter cellular processes and –signals can result in complex structures with diverse morphologies and functionalities, deregulation of the same signals might cause devastating consequences for the function of an organ and the entire organism. In Paper IV of this thesis, we could identify a shorter-, hypoxia regulated AmotL2 p60 isoform. We show the actions of AmotL2 p60 to cause retainment of apical polarity proteins in cytoplasmic vesicles, hence preventing the establishment of apical-basal polarity. Furthermore, we could show AmotL2 p60 to weaken cell‐cell junctions and sensitize cells to growth factor stimuli. The combined actions of AmotL2 p60 cause tumor cell invasion into the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). In conclusion, we here provide data showing the two AmotL2 isoforms to possess entirely distinct functions, uniting cells into a multicellular structure, and disconnecting cells during tumor invasion, respectively

    Financing Sources for Shipping - A Case Study at Wonsild & Son

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    Title: Financing sources for shipping. – a case study at Wonsild & Son Author: Daniel Hultin Tutors: Niclas AndrĂ©n, Department of Business Administration, School of Econonomics and Business Administration, Lund University. Everth Larsson. Department of Logistics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University. SĂžren Hahnemann, Wonsild & Son A/S, Copenhagen. Problem discussion: o What is the best-suited form of equity and debt for the financing of Wonsild & Sons chemical tanker vessel? o How is the “optimal” financing solution for the company compared with the current one? o How can this “optimal” finance be obtained? Purpose: The purpose of the study is to on a broad basis investigate if the financing solutions of Wonsild & Son’s vessels can be improved. Method: The methodology used can be described as inductive, which is appropriate with aspect on the purpose of the study. The study is based around two new built case vessel ordered by Wonsild & Son in 2003. The study is primarily based upon interviews with employees at ten commercial banks in northern Europe. The banks can be considered to be representative for the shipping banking industry in region. The information obtained from the interviews can be considered to be of the primary type. The information obtained form the interviews is analysed with both shipping specific, and general finance theories. The results in the study can be considered to have a high degree of validity, thanks to the large use of primary data. Regarding the reliability it is however hard to make any statements without actually testing the recommendations in real life, something that lies out of the scope of the thesis. Conclusions: The study shows that private equity and commercial bank loan debt are the most appropriate financing forms for the studied case vessels. The study also shows that there are differences between the banks attitude and willingness to provide finance to the case vessels. These differences can be explained by the banks experience with the vessel type. Banks with a greater experience with the vessel type are more positive towards the case and are more willing to provide finance than ones that are less experienced with the vessel type. Among the group of banks that are less experienced with the vessel type is the bank that currently is providing vessel finance for Wonsild & Son. It is, as a result of these findings, recommended that Wonsild & Son enters negotiations about vessel financing with the banks that have a great experience with the vessel type presented in the case. It is also recommended that the vessels shall be owned under a A/S form. This is recommended in order to improve the financing situation at Wonsild & Son

    Unions, the Environment, and Corporate Social Responsibility

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    Heady with his re-election that day as President of the International Union, United Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural Implement Workers (UAW), Walter P. Reuther addressed the delegates to the union\u27s 1968 convention: What we are talking about is making the labor movement into a vital force, a creative force that can begin to take the lead in the mobilization of the broad force in America who need to be mobilized if we are going to be equal to dealing with the complex problems we face in the difficult years ahead

    Public Party Funding and Political Participation: Evidence from Swedish Municipalities

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    Across most contemporary democracies, different provisions of public funding for parties have been introduced in post-war times. Parties have come to rely heavily on this subsidy, yet, the effects of this change in party finance remains poorly understood. Sweden is no exception to this rule, where parties receive considerable amounts of funding from both state and local authorities. In this thesis, I utilize rich panel data on Swedish municipalities between 1998 and 2014 to study the effects of different levels of municipal party funding on two forms of political participation: Turnout in municipal elections, and membership in the Green Party. I apply time and unit fixed effects and a vector of control variables in regression models. Overall, estimated coefficients are negative for simpler specifications regarding turnout, and otherwise statistically inseparable from zero. This suggests that municipal party support does not live up to its express goal of strengthening local democracy, at least not in terms of increasing political participation, but might not necessarily be detrimental to it either

    VÄrdstuderandens professionella tillvÀxt : - mentorer som stöd i utvecklingen

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    Avsikten med denna studie Ă€r att undersöka hur mentorskapsprogrammet pĂ„ Arcada har inverkat pĂ„ sjukskötarstuderandens professionella tillvĂ€xt. Syftet Ă€r att kartlĂ€gga effek-ten av mentorskapsprogrammet i relation till studerandens professionella tillvĂ€xt. Un-dersökningen utgĂ„r frĂ„n sjukskötarstuderandens perspektiv. I denna studie kommer vi att utreda vad den professionella tillvĂ€xten utgörs av och hur den tar sig uttryck hos sjukskötarstuderanden. Vi vill Ă€ven ta reda pĂ„ hur mentorn stöder den professionella utvecklingen hos studeranden. De centrala frĂ„gestĂ€llningarna för denna undersökning Ă€r: - Vad utgörs den professionella tillvĂ€xten av? - Vad ger forskningen för kunskap om mentorskap för sjukskötarstuderande? - Hur har mentorn pĂ„verkat adeptens professionella tillvĂ€xt? - Hur har mentorskapsprogrammet stött sjukskötarstuderandens utveckling mellan stadierna novis och avancerad nybörjare? Som referensram har vi valt Patricia Benners teori som ger oss en grundlig beskrivning av sjukskötarstuderandens utveckling frĂ„n nybörjare till en kompetent sjukskötare. Stu-dien Ă€r uppdelad i tvĂ„ delar; en litteraturanalys och en empirisk studie genom en kvali-tativ intervju. Den kvalitativa intervjun riktar sig till tre informanter som deltar i men-torskapsprogrammet pĂ„ Arcada. Resultatet av bĂ„da studierna har analyserats enligt en induktiv analysmetod. I studien framkommer att sjukskötarstuderandena upplever att mentorn stöder den personliga och yrkesmĂ€ssiga vĂ€xten genom att dela med sig av sin erfarenhet, bekrĂ€fta studeranden och ge studeranden utrymme för reflektion.The aim with this study is to examine how the mentorship program at Arcada has influenced the nursing students’ professional growth. The purpose is to map out the effects of the mentorship program in relations to the students’ professional development. The study proceeds from the nursing students point of view. In this study we will analyze what professional development is made out of and how it is expressed by the nursing students. We also want to investigate into how the mentor supports the professional development of the students. De central questions are: - What is professional growth made out of? - What kind of information/knowledge does the studies give about mentorship for nursing students? - How has the mentor influenced the mentee’s professional growth? - How has the mentorship program supported the nursing students development from novice to advanced beginner? As frame of reference we have chosen Patricia Benner’s theory that gives us a thorough description of the nursing students development from novice to a competent nurse. The study is divided into two sections; one literature analysis and the other an empiric study through a qualitative half structured interview. The qualitative interview is directed towards three informants who are all a part of the mentorship program at Arcada. The results from both the studies have been analyzed according to an inductive method. The study shows that nursing students feel that the mentor supports the personal and professional development through sharing his or her experience, confirming the student and giving the student room for reflection

    An empirical analysis of industrial trade in public procurement

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    Masteroppgave i bedriftsĂžkonomi - Universitetet i Nordland, 201

    Peri-implantitis Microbiota

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    Dental implant surgery has been a successful therapeutic option for the rehabilitation of partially or completely edentulous jaws for many years. However, evidence regarding the causative factors of peri-implant disease is still lacking. Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease affecting the soft and hard tissues surrounding osseointegrated implant associated with the formation of a bacterial biofilm on the implant surface close to the marginal tissues. The aim of this chapter is to summarize the knowledge regarding the microbiota associated with peri-implant infection and to review the different microbial diagnostic tests to understand the peri-implant microbiota, as well as summarize the present knowledge regarding management of peri-implantitis and propose further recommendations for future studies. This chapter shows that the scientific data regarding the microbiota responsible for peri-implantitis initiation and progression are still inconclusive. A microbiological test may thus be one diagnostic method to be used to understand the complexity of microbiota associated with the peri-implant sulcus. However, in order to resolve inflammation and arrest disease progression, the understanding of the biofilm development is essential

    Visualizing Institutional Logics in Sociomaterial Practices

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    This paper aims to deepen our understanding of how sociomaterial practices influence and are influenced by competing institutional logics, by combining a sociomaterial lens with the institutional logics perspective. We present findings from an interpretive, longitudinal case study of the emergency surgical ward of a Nordic University Hospital. By focusing our analysis on how affordances and agency emerge through the implementation, use and development of digital and physical visualization boards, we show how these artifacts constitute an integral part of the operational staff’s sensemaking of a new institutional logic. We make two contributions. Firstly, we show how the way visualization artifacts shape individual focus of attention can facilitate integration of a new institutional logic in operational practices. Secondly, we show how the perceived affordances of a technology are created from the experience of using several different technologies and how the rejection of one technology simultaneously can constitute another

    The process of product development in small agricultural firms

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    This study provides a better understanding of small-scale farmers New Product Development (NPD) processes, what activities farmers undertake within and how they work with NPD processes. NPD plays a crucial role in creating and maintaining competitiveness in many industries and its importance has grown over the years due to changing market conditions, also in the agricultural sector. One of the most critical and most important tasks for a firm is the launch and development of new products, moreover, the high frequency of failure of the development of new food products, 72-88% fail at launch, shows that the knowledge of practices for developing new food products needs to be expanded. There is a great potential for the Swedish lamb production to conduct NPD processes, with an animal that produces three different base materials; wool, meat and sheepskin, and having an increased demand for newly developed products. Previous studies have focused on NPD in large firms and on mostly industrial products. The food product sector has been neglected, which has resulted in a paucity of studies on how small firms can incorporate and work with NPD practices. Moreover, previous research has tried to identify success factors and “the best practices”. In those studies, the firm context is treated as static and over-simplified, however, this study sheds light on the matter of NPD processes through a farmers’ perspective, fulfilling a gap of knowledge on NPD in the agricultural context. The findings from this study can provide empirical insights that might be valuable to fulfil government’s and policymakers’ wishes to increase the innovation rate in the agricultural sector of Sweden. A conceptual framework was developed based on the stage-gate model and a literature review of factors for success when firms engage in innovation projects. By using a qualitative approach based on semi-structured interviews, a multiple case study was conducted on eleven lamb producers on the island of Gotland in Sweden. A conclusion is that the interviewed farmers are most engaged in the activities; development, testing and validation, and consumer relationship when launching the product, and less engaged in scoping, building a business case and post launch review. Moreover, the farmers are more involved in processes within firm- and productrelated factors and are less involved in activities that relate to project- and market-related factors
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