51 research outputs found

    Moisture-Induced Effects on Lignocellulosic and Humification Fractions in Aerobically Composted Straw and Manure

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    Humic substances affect compost stability and maturation. However, the intricate structure of lignocellulosic materials hinders the biodegradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, often promoting the use of synthetic additives which results in microbial inactivation and death. Therefore, this study examined the effects of optimal moisture levels (MC1 = 45%, MC2 = 55%, and MC3 = 65%) on lignocellulosic and humification fractions in aerobically composted straw and manure. The study showed that 65% moisture content was more efficient in decomposing cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, with hemicellulose (115.3% w/w ≈ 47.1%) degrading more than cellulose (76.0% w/w ≈ 39.5%) and lignin (39.9% w/w ≈ 25.9%). However, in compost heaps with 45% moisture, the humic acid concentration increased significantly by 12.4% (3.1% w/w) and 17.3% (4.3% w/w) compared with 55% and 65% moisture, respectively. All moisture levels increased the mineralization of humic substances, but the index measured was highest at 65% MC (23.8% w/w) and lowest at 45% MC (18% w/w). In addition, the humification rate showed the trend: 0.083% w/w > 0.087% w/w > 0.100% w/w for MC1, MC2, and MC3, respectively. Overall, the results indicate that an initial moisture content of 65% is aerobically efficient for the conversion of corn straw and cow manure into stable and mature compost

    Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Phytosomes Administered via Intervaginal Space Injection Ameliorate Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice

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    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal interstitial disease characterized by fibroblast proliferation and differentiation and abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix, with high mortality and an increasing annual incidence. Since few drugs are available for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis, there is an urgent need for high-efficiency therapeutic drugs and treatment methods to reduce the mortality associated with pulmonary fibrosis. The interstitium, a highly efficient transportation system that pervades the body, plays an important role in the occurrence and development of disease, and can be used as a new route for disease diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we evaluated the administration of hydroxysafflor yellow A phytosomes via intervaginal space injection (ISI) as an anti-pulmonary fibrosis treatment. Our results show that this therapeutic strategy blocked the activation of p38 protein in the MAPK-p38 signaling pathway and inhibited the expression of Smad3 protein in the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, thereby reducing secretion of related inflammatory factors, deposition of collagen in the lungs of mice, and destruction of the alveolar structure. Use of ISI in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis provides a potential novel therapeutic modality for the disease

    Influence of Aeration Method on Gaseous Emissions and the Losses of the Carbon and Nitrogen during Cow Manure Composting

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    The objective of this research was to explore the effects of different aeration methods on NH3 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the losses of carbon and nitrogen from composting of cow manure and corn stalks in the laboratory-scale reactors. Here, we designed three treatments, including continuous aerated treatment C1 (aeration rates 0.21 L·kg−1 dry matter (DM)·min−1) and intermittent aerated treatments I1 (aeration rates 0.42 L·kg−1 DM·min−1; aerate 10 min, stop 10 min) and I2 (aeration rates 0.84 L·kg−1 DM·min−1; aerate 5 min, stop 15 min). The results showed that the physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH values, and germination index) of composting products met the requirements of maturity and sanitation. Compared with continuous aerated treatment C1, the cumulative NH3 emissions of I1 and I2 treatments decreased by 24.37% and 19.27%, while the cumulative CO2 emissions decreased by 13.01% and 20.72%. On the contrary, the cumulative N2O emissions of I1 and I2 treatments increased by 22.22% and 43.14%. CO2 emission was the principal pathway for the TOC losses, which comprised over 65% of TOC losses. C1 treatment had the highest TOC losses due to its highest cumulative CO2 emissions. The TN losses of I1 and I2 treatments reduced 9.07% and 6.1% compared to C1 treatment, so the intermittent aerated modes could reduce the TN loss. Due to the potential for mitigation of gaseous emissions, I1 treatment was recommended to be used in aerobic composting of cow manure

    Maize Straw Return and Nitrogen Rate Effects on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Performance and Soil Physicochemical Characteristics in Northwest China

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    The average yield of fresh potato tubers per hectare is relatively low in China, partly due to poor nutrient management. Chronic inorganic N enrichment leads to soil acidification, which deteriorates soil fertility. Straw residues are removed from the field or burnt during land preparation, resulting in nutrient depletion and air pollution. However, these residues can be returned to the soil to improve its fertility. Therefore, a two–year experiment was conducted in an existing field with five years of different inorganic nitrogen (N) rate to determine the effects of straw return and N rate on potato growth, tuber yield, and quality, profit margin, and soil physicochemical properties. The experiment consisted of four N rates: 0 (control, CK), 75 (low N rate, LN), 150 (medium N rate, MN), and 300 (high N rate, HN) kg N ha−1 with and without straw (9 t ha−1) return. The results showed that straw with N enrichment improved soil fertility, which increased tuber yield and quality. Compared to the control, MN + straw treatment stimulated economic tuber yield (34.73% and 38.34%), profit margin (55.51% and 63.03%), and protein content (20.04% and 25.46%) in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Nitrogen enrichment after straw return is a sustainable practice for stimulating potato tuber yield, profit margin, and improving soil fertility to promote sustainable agriculture development

    Influence of Aeration Method on Gaseous Emissions and the Losses of the Carbon and Nitrogen during Cow Manure Composting

    No full text
    The objective of this research was to explore the effects of different aeration methods on NH3 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the losses of carbon and nitrogen from composting of cow manure and corn stalks in the laboratory-scale reactors. Here, we designed three treatments, including continuous aerated treatment C1 (aeration rates 0.21 L·kg−1 dry matter (DM)·min−1) and intermittent aerated treatments I1 (aeration rates 0.42 L·kg−1 DM·min−1; aerate 10 min, stop 10 min) and I2 (aeration rates 0.84 L·kg−1 DM·min−1; aerate 5 min, stop 15 min). The results showed that the physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH values, and germination index) of composting products met the requirements of maturity and sanitation. Compared with continuous aerated treatment C1, the cumulative NH3 emissions of I1 and I2 treatments decreased by 24.37% and 19.27%, while the cumulative CO2 emissions decreased by 13.01% and 20.72%. On the contrary, the cumulative N2O emissions of I1 and I2 treatments increased by 22.22% and 43.14%. CO2 emission was the principal pathway for the TOC losses, which comprised over 65% of TOC losses. C1 treatment had the highest TOC losses due to its highest cumulative CO2 emissions. The TN losses of I1 and I2 treatments reduced 9.07% and 6.1% compared to C1 treatment, so the intermittent aerated modes could reduce the TN loss. Due to the potential for mitigation of gaseous emissions, I1 treatment was recommended to be used in aerobic composting of cow manure

    Effects of C/N Ratio on Lignocellulose Degradation and Enzyme Activities in Aerobic Composting

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    Lignocellulosic materials have a complex physicochemical composition and structure that reduces their decomposition rate and hinders the formation of humic substances during composting. Therefore, a composting experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different C/N ratios on lignocellulose (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) degradation and the activities of corresponding enzymes during aerobic composting. The study had five C/N ratios, namely, T1 (C/N ratio of 15), T2 (C/N ratio of 20), T3 (C/N ratio of 25), T4 (C/N ratio of 30) and T5 (C/N ratio of 35). The results showed that treatments T3 and T4 had the highest rate of degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, while treatment T3 had the highest rate of degradation of lignin. Among the five treatments, treatment T3 enhanced the degradation of the lignocellulose constituents, indicating a degradation rate of 6.86–35.17%, 15.63–44.08% and 31.69–165.60% for cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, respectively. The degradation of cellulose and lignin occurred mainly at the thermophilic and late mesophilic phases of composting, while hemicellulose degradation occurred at the maturation phase. Treatment T3 was the best C/N ratio to stimulate the activities of manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase, which in turn promoted lignocellulose degradation

    Divergent Accumulation of Microbial Residues and Amino Sugars in Loess Soil after Six Years of Different Inorganic Nitrogen Enrichment Scenarios

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    Amino sugars are key microbial biomarkers for determining the contribution of microbial residues in soil organic matter (SOM). However, it remains largely unclear as to what extent inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilization can lead to the significant degradation of SOM in alkaline agricultural soils. A six-year field experiment was conducted from 2013 to 2018 to evaluate the effects of chronic N enrichment on microbial residues, amino sugars, and soil biochemical properties under four nitrogen (urea, 46% N) fertilization scenarios: 0 (no-N, control), 75 (low-N), 225 (medium-N), and 375 (high-N) kg N ha−1. The results showed that chronic N enrichment stimulated microbial residues and amino sugar accumulation over time. The medium-N treatment increased the concentration of muramic acid (15.77%), glucosamine (13.55%), galactosamine (18.84%), bacterial residues (16.88%), fungal residues (11.31%), and total microbial residues (12.57%) compared to the control in 2018; however, these concentrations were comparable to the high-N treatment concentrations. The ratio of glucosamine to galactosamine and of glucosamine to muramic acid decreased over time due to a larger increase in bacterial residues as compared to fungal residues. Microbial biomass, soil organic carbon, and aboveground plant biomass positively correlated with microbial residues and amino sugar components. Chronic N enrichment improved the soil biochemical properties and aboveground plant biomass, which stimulated microbial residues and amino sugar accumulation over time

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of potato pathogenic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. KGSJ26F3

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    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. KGSJ26F3 is a plant pathogenic filamentous fungus isolated from wilted potato in northwest China where potato is the most important crop. We carried out a complete mitochondrial genome of F. oxysporum. The results showed the circular molecule is 46,664 bp, and the base composition of the mitogenome is as follows: A (34.3%), T (33.6%), C (14.6%), and G (17.5%). The mitogenome contains 18 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and 26 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. The gene order is identical to that of the other Fusarium mitogenomes. The taxonomic status of the F. oxysporum mitogenome exhibits a closest relationship with F. oxysporum. However, it varied in the structure of mitochondrial genome

    Synthesis and Characterization of a Dual-Cation Organomontmorillonite Nanocomposite

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    In this study, a novel dual-cation organomontmorillonites (OMt) nanocomposite was synthesized by two kinds of modifiers cetyltrimethylammonium chloride and cysteamine hydrochloride, and the adsorption behavior of modifiers into montmorillonite (Mt) has been investigated. The OMt were characterized by techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric and differential thermal (TG-DTA) analyses. The effects of temperature, contact time, the order of addition and the concentration of organic modifiers on the amounts of organics adsorbed were investigated. The adsorption amount of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH) increased with the increase of the added CTAC amount and contact time, while the addition order of modifiers and modification temperature had no significant effect on the actual adsorption amount of CTAC and CSH on Mt, as confirmed by the XRD patterns. The experimentally determined isotherms showed a good fit with the Langmuir adsorption models. The adsorption kinetics demonstrated that the adsorption of CTAC and CSH by Mt followed the pseudo-second-order model, and CTAC adsorption rate on Mt was faster than that of CSH. FTIR spectrum clearly revealed the incorporation of surfactant ions into the interlayer region. The TG-DTA analyses showed that the total mass losses of OMt strongly depended on the molecular volume of modifiers
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