645 research outputs found

    Micro-elimination of hepatitis C virus infection in the rural and remote areas of Taiwan – A multi-center collaborative care model

    No full text
    Introduction: Taiwan has several hepatitis C virus (HCV) hyper-endemic areas. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a collaborative HCV care system with an outreach decentralized strategy among the resource-constrained rural/remote areas of Taiwan. Methods: The pilot study was conducted in four high HCV-endemic townships in the rural/remote areas of Taoyuan, Alishan, Zhuoxi and Xiulin. Registered residents who worked or lived in the four areas and were aged 30–75 years were invited to participate in this program. Multidisciplinary HCV care teams provided outreach decentralized services of anti-HCV screening, link-to-diagnosis, and link-to-treatment with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA). The primary end-point was sustained virological response (SVR). Results: Of 8291 registered residents who were invited as the target population, 7807 (94.2%) subjects received anti-HCV screening, with the average anti-HCV prevalence rate of 14.2% (1108/7807) (range among four areas: 11.8%–16.7%). The rate of link-to-diagnosis was 94.4% (1046/1108) of anti-HCV-positive subjects (range: 90.9%–100%) with an average HCV-viremic rate of 55.1% (576/1046) (range: 50.0%–64.3%). The link-to-treat rate was 94.4% (544/576) in HCV-viremic subjects (range from 92.7% to 97.2%). Overall, 523 (96.1%) patients achieved an SVR (range: 94.7%–97.6%). Eventually, the overall effectiveness was 80.7% (range: 74.6%–93.1%). The presence of hepatocellular carcinoma at baseline was the only factor associated with DAA failure. The DAA regimens were well-tolerated. Conclusion: The outreach decentralized community-based care system with DAA therapy was highly effective and safe in the achievement of HCV micro-elimination in the resource-constrained rural and remote regions, which could help us to tackle the disparity

    Structured with TF-IDF (648)-final.

    No full text
    BackgroundThe prevalence of violence in acute psychiatric wards is a critical concern. According to a meta-analysis investigating violence in psychiatric inpatient units, researchers estimated that approximately 17% of inpatients commit one or more acts of violence during their stay. Inpatient violence negatively affects health-care providers and patients and may contribute to high staff turnover. Therefore, predicting which psychiatric inpatients will commit violence is of considerable clinical significance.ObjectiveThe present study aimed to estimate the violence rate for psychiatric inpatients and establish a predictive model for violence in psychiatric inpatients.MethodsWe collected the structured and unstructured data from Chinese nursing electronic medical records (EMRs) for the violence prediction. The data was obtained from the psychiatry department of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan, covering the period between January 2008 and December 2018. Several text mining and machine learning techniques were employed to analyze the data.ResultsThe results demonstrated that the rate of violence in psychiatric inpatients is 19.7%. The patients with violence in psychiatric wards were generally younger, had a more violent history, and were more likely to be unmarried. Furthermore, our study supported the feasibility of predicting aggressive incidents in psychiatric wards by using nursing EMRs and the proposed method can be incorporated into routine clinical practice to enable early prediction of inpatient violence.ConclusionsOur findings may provide clinicians with a new basis for judgment of the risk of violence in psychiatric wards.</div

    Survival outcomes of east Asian patients with advanced non‐small cell lung cancer treated with first‐line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors: A network meta‐analysis of real‐world evidence

    No full text
    Abstract Background The comparative efficacies of different generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)‐mutated advanced non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain largely unknown. Moreover, whether one EGFR‐TKI confers superior survival remains unclear, especially in East Asians. We conducted a network meta‐analysis (NMA) comparing the survival outcomes of East Asian patients with advanced NSCLC treated with first‐line EGFR‐TKIs. Methods The NMA included observational real‐world evidence studies on adult patients with EGFR‐mutated advanced NSCLC who received first (gefitinib and erlotinib), second (afatinib), or third (osimertinib) generation EGFR‐TKIs as frontline therapy. Studies were identified through an online bibliographic search of Medline articles in the PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Results For overall survival (OS), afatinib had significantly better hazard ratios (HRs) than osimertinib (HR: 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23–0.91), gefitinib (HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.43–0.72), and erlotinib (HR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54–0.92). For progression‐free survival (PFS), afatinib had significantly better HRs than gefitinib (HR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.36–0.56) and erlotinib (HR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.49–0.81). Moreover, afatinib was most likely to achieve the longest OS (81.3%), followed by erlotinib (13%), osimertinib, and gefitinib. Furthermore, afatinib was most likely to achieve the longest PFS (48.3%), followed by osimertinib (34.9%) and erlotinib. Conclusions This real‐world evidence shows that afatinib confers better survival than other first‐line EGFR‐TKIs in East Asian patients with advanced NSCLC

    Prediction model performance assessment using 10-fold cross-validation.

    No full text
    Prediction model performance assessment using 10-fold cross-validation.</p

    A ring-like accretion structure in M87 connecting its black hole and jet

    Get PDF
    The nearby radio galaxy M87 is a prime target for studying black hole accretion and jet formation1,2. Event Horizon Telescope observations of M87 in 2017, at a wavelength of 1.3 mm, revealed a ring-like structure, which was interpreted as gravitationally lensed emission around a central black hole3. Here we report images of M87 obtained in 2018, at a wavelength of 3.5 mm, showing that the compact radio core is spatially resolved. High-resolution imaging shows a ring-like structure of [Formula: see text] Schwarzschild radii in diameter, approximately 50% larger than that seen at 1.3 mm. The outer edge at 3.5 mm is also larger than that at 1.3 mm. This larger and thicker ring indicates a substantial contribution from the accretion flow with absorption effects, in addition\ua0to the gravitationally lensed ring-like emission. The images show that the edge-brightened jet connects to the accretion flow of the black hole. Close to the black hole, the emission profile of the jet-launching region is wider than the expected profile of a black-hole-driven jet, suggesting the possible presence of a wind associated with the accretion flow

    The text preprocessing steps.

    No full text
    BackgroundThe prevalence of violence in acute psychiatric wards is a critical concern. According to a meta-analysis investigating violence in psychiatric inpatient units, researchers estimated that approximately 17% of inpatients commit one or more acts of violence during their stay. Inpatient violence negatively affects health-care providers and patients and may contribute to high staff turnover. Therefore, predicting which psychiatric inpatients will commit violence is of considerable clinical significance.ObjectiveThe present study aimed to estimate the violence rate for psychiatric inpatients and establish a predictive model for violence in psychiatric inpatients.MethodsWe collected the structured and unstructured data from Chinese nursing electronic medical records (EMRs) for the violence prediction. The data was obtained from the psychiatry department of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan, covering the period between January 2008 and December 2018. Several text mining and machine learning techniques were employed to analyze the data.ResultsThe results demonstrated that the rate of violence in psychiatric inpatients is 19.7%. The patients with violence in psychiatric wards were generally younger, had a more violent history, and were more likely to be unmarried. Furthermore, our study supported the feasibility of predicting aggressive incidents in psychiatric wards by using nursing EMRs and the proposed method can be incorporated into routine clinical practice to enable early prediction of inpatient violence.ConclusionsOur findings may provide clinicians with a new basis for judgment of the risk of violence in psychiatric wards.</div

    Exposure Characteristics and Cumulative Risk Assessment for Phthalates in Children Living near a Petrochemical Complex

    No full text
    Background: School-aged children living near plastics–producing factories may have higher risk of exposure to phthalates released during the manufacturing processes. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in school-aged children living near a petrochemical complex and estimate the cumulative risk of phthalate exposure. Methods: We used a well-established cohort (Taiwan Petrochemical Complex Cohort for Children, TPE3C) of school-aged children (6–13 years old) living near polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) factories in central Taiwan from October 2013 to September 2014. A total of 257 children were included from five elementary schools: Syu-Cuo Branch (n = 58, school A, ~0.9 km), Feng-An (n = 40, school B, ~2.7 km), Ciao-Tou (n = 58, school C, ~5.5 km), Mai-Liao (n = 37, school D, ~6.9 km), and Lung-Feng (n = 57, school E, ~8.6 km). We analyzed 11 metabolites of seven phthalates (including di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP)) in urine. Daily intakes (DIs) were compared with acceptable intake levels to calculate the hazard quotient (HQ) for individual phthalates, and the cumulative risk for each child was assessed using a hazard index (HI), which was the sum of the the individual HQs. Results: The geometric mean and proportion of participants with HIs exceeding one for hepatic (HIhep) and reproductive (HIrep) effects were 0.33 (13.2%) and 0.24 (7.8%), respectively. The major contributors to phthalate exposure risk were DEHP, di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP) and DnBP in all children. Moreover, we observed a U shaped distribution of DEHP exposure by school distance from the PVC and VCM factories (school A: 7.48 μg/kg/day and school E: 80.44 μg/kg/day). This may be due to emissions (closest) and and being located downwind of PVC scrap incineration (farthest). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that children living near a petrochemical complex were at a greater risk of phthalate exposure than normal school-aged children and that phthalate exposure was mainly attributed to DEHP, DiBP and DnBP. In addition, inhalation may have been a risk factor for people living near to PVC and VCM factories

    Effects of Protein Supplementation Combined with Resistance Exercise Training on Walking Speed Recovery in Older Adults with Knee Osteoarthritis and Sarcopenia

    No full text
    Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is closely associated with sarcopenia, sharing the common characteristics of muscle weakness and low physical performance. Resistance exercise training (RET), protein supplementation (PS), and PS+RET have promise as treatments for both sarcopenia and KOA. However, whether PS+RET exerts any effect on time to recovery to normal walking speed (WS) in older adults with sarcopenia and KOA remains unclear. This study investigated the treatment efficiency of PS+RET on WS recovery among individuals with KOA and sarcopenia. A total of 108 older adults aged ≥ 60 years who had a diagnosis of radiographic KOA and sarcopenia were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Sarcopenia was defined on the basis of the cutoff values of the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index for Asian people and a slow WS less than 1.0 m/s. The patients were equally distributed to three groups: PS+RET, RET alone, and usual care. The weekly assessment was performed during a 12-week intervention and a subsequent 36-week follow-up period. A cutoff of 1.0 m/s was used to identify successful recovery to normal WS. Kaplan–Meier analysis was performed to measure the survival time to normal WS among the study groups. Multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression (CPHR) models were established to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of successful WS recovery and determine its potential moderators. After the 3-month intervention, PS+RET as well as RET obtained greater changes in WS by an adjusted mean difference of 0.18 m/s (p p p p < 0.05), independently exerted significant effects on WS recovery. PS+RET may accelerate normal WS recovery by approximately 3 months compared with RET. Sex and initial WS may influence the treatment efficiency. For patients with KOA who suffer sarcopenia, 12-week RET alone exerts significant effects on WS recovery, whereas additional PS further augments the treatment effects of RET by speeding up the recovery time of WS toward a level ≥ 1.0 m/s, which facilitates the patients to diminish the disease severity or even free from sarcopenia

    Impact of Perineural Invasion and Preexisting Type 2 Diabetes on Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy

    No full text
    Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (neoCRT) followed by surgery is the cornerstone treatment strategy in locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Despite this high- intensity multimodality therapy, most patients still experience recurrences and metastases, especially those who do not achieve a pathological complete response (pCR) after neoCRT. Here, we focused on identifying poor prognostic factors. In this retrospective cohort study; we enrolled 140 patients who completed neoCRT plus surgery treatment sequence with no interval metastasis. Overall, 45 of 140 patients (32.1%) achieved a pCR. The overall survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and metastasis-free survival was significantly better in patients with a pCR than in patients with a non-pCR. In the non-pCR subgroup, the presence of perineural invasion (PNI) and preexisting type 2 diabetes (T2DM) were two factors adversely affecting DFS. After adjusting for other factors, multivariate analysis showed that the hazard ratio (HR) was 2.354 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.240–4.467, p = 0.009) for the presence of PNI and 2.368 (95% CI 1.351–4.150, p = 0.003) for preexisting T2DM. Patients with a combination of both factors had the worst survival. In conclusion, PNI and preexisting T2DM may adversely affect the prognosis of patients with ESCC receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy

    End-tidal Carbon Dioxide + Return of Spontaneous Circulation After Cardiac Arrest (RACA) Score to Predict Outcomes After Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest

    No full text
    Introduction: The return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest (RACA) score is a well-validated model for estimating the probability of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) by incorporating several variables, including gender, age, arrest aetiology, witness status, arrest location, initial cardiac rhythms, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and emergency medical services (EMS) arrival time. The RACA score was initially designed for comparisons between different EMS systems by standardising ROSC rates. End-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) is a quality indicator of CPR. We aimed to improve the performance of the RACA score by adding minimum EtCO2 measured during CPR to develop the EtCO2 + RACA score for OHCA patients transported to an emergency department (ED). Methods: This was a retrospective analysis using prospectively collected data for OHCA patients resuscitated at an ED during 2015–2020. Adult patients with advanced airways inserted and available EtCO2 measurements were included. We used the EtCO2 values recorded in the ED for analysis. The primary outcome was ROSC. In the derivation cohort, we used multivariable logistic regression to develop the model. In the temporally split validation cohort, we assessed the discriminative performance of the EtCO2 + RACA score by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and compared it with the RACA score using the DeLong test. Results: There were 530 and 228 patients in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The median measurements of EtCO2 were 8.0 times (interquartile range [IQR] 3.0-12.0 times), with the median minimum EtCO2 of 15.5 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) (IQR 8.0-26.0 mm Hg). The median RACA score was 36.4% (IQR 28.9-48.0%), and a total of 393 patients (51.8%) achieved ROSC. The EtCO2 + RACA score was validated with good discriminative performance (AUC, 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.88), outperforming the RACA score (AUC, 0.71, 95% CI 0.65-0.78) (DeLong test: P &lt; 0.001). Conclusion: The EtCO2 + RACA score may facilitate the decision-making process regarding allocations of medical resources in EDs for OHCA resuscitation
    corecore