37 research outputs found

    Pan-cancer analysis of whole genomes

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    Cancer is driven by genetic change, and the advent of massively parallel sequencing has enabled systematic documentation of this variation at the whole-genome scale(1-3). Here we report the integrative analysis of 2,658 whole-cancer genomes and their matching normal tissues across 38 tumour types from the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) Consortium of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We describe the generation of the PCAWG resource, facilitated by international data sharing using compute clouds. On average, cancer genomes contained 4-5 driver mutations when combining coding and non-coding genomic elements; however, in around 5% of cases no drivers were identified, suggesting that cancer driver discovery is not yet complete. Chromothripsis, in which many clustered structural variants arise in a single catastrophic event, is frequently an early event in tumour evolution; in acral melanoma, for example, these events precede most somatic point mutations and affect several cancer-associated genes simultaneously. Cancers with abnormal telomere maintenance often originate from tissues with low replicative activity and show several mechanisms of preventing telomere attrition to critical levels. Common and rare germline variants affect patterns of somatic mutation, including point mutations, structural variants and somatic retrotransposition. A collection of papers from the PCAWG Consortium describes non-coding mutations that drive cancer beyond those in the TERT promoter(4); identifies new signatures of mutational processes that cause base substitutions, small insertions and deletions and structural variation(5,6); analyses timings and patterns of tumour evolution(7); describes the diverse transcriptional consequences of somatic mutation on splicing, expression levels, fusion genes and promoter activity(8,9); and evaluates a range of more-specialized features of cancer genomes(8,10-18).Peer reviewe

    Receiver Windowing Design for Narrowband Interference Mitigation in MB-OFDM UWB System

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    In 2005, the WiMedia Alliance working with the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) announced the establishment of the WiMedia MB-OFDM (Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) UWB radio platform as their global UWB standard. It was also chosen as the physical layer (PHY) of high data rate wireless specifications for high speed Wireless USB (W-USB), Bluetooth 3.0 and Wireless High-Definition Media Interface (HDMI). However, due to the low power and wide bandwidth nature of UWB systems, in-band narrowband interference (NBI) may hinder the receiver performance. This thesis presents an analysis of NBI impact on the MB-OFDM system for UWB communication. The intent of our analysis is to provide practical solutions for interference mitigation under different NBI models. In our work, a new receiver windowing for zero padding (ZP) OFDM system is proposed to reduce NBI spreading in the MB-OFDM UWB system. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of windowing under different NBI models.Microelectronics & Computer EngineeringElectrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Scienc

    Tidal flat landscape formation and evolution

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    Tidal flat landscape formation and evolution are closely related to the biotic and abiotic processes that take place in the intertidal environments. Extensive studies have been carried out on the relevant agents such as hydrodynamics, sediment transport and the related ecosystem (vegetation and benthic communities) dynamics. However, the feedback mechanism among multiple agents is complex and many key aspects are currently understudied. In times of accelerating global change, knowledge of the mechanisms that drive tidal flat evolution is of great importance to ecosystem conservation and restoration. This thesis addresses the currently understudied subjects related to intertidal hydrodynamic processes as well as the intertidal landscape developments, which are of great economic and ecological importance.Hydraulic EngineeringCivil Engineering and Geoscience

    Comparison of numerical predictions for early-age creep

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    Creep at early ages significantly affects the volumetric deformation of cementitious materials. Efficient modelling of early-age creep is a challenging task, mainly due to continuously evolving material properties (hydration) and other phenomena (e.g. autogenous shrinkage) taking place in parallel. Various methods were introduced during the past decades to achieve a successful prediction. However, few comparisons between different methods are available until now. This study re-examines different numerical predictions for creep of cement pastes before 28 days. The investigated predicting methods include the recently proposed incremental rheology model [1], fictitious time (age) model [2] and solidification theory [3–5]. To compare the performance of these predictions, experimental creep results of cement pastes with water to cement ratio of 0.35 were used. Creep results under separate loading/unloading cycles were used to calibrate the parameters in the different methods, while creep results under sequential loading were used to validate their predictions. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. This study provides an assessment of the different methods and clarifies their requirements

    Reduction kinetics of hematite powder in hydrogen atmosphere at moderate temperatures

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    Hydrogen has received much attention in the development of direct reduction of iron ores because hydrogen metallurgy is one of the effective methods to reduce CO2 emission in the iron and steel industry. In this study, the kinetic mechanism of reduction of hematite particles was studied in a hydrogen atmosphere. The phases and morphological transformation of hematite during the reduction were characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was found that porous magnetite was formed, and the particles were degraded during the reduction. Finally, sintering of the reduced iron and wüstite retarded the reductive progress. The average activation energy was extracted to be 86.1 kJ/mol and 79.1 kJ/mol according to Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Starink methods, respectively. The reaction fraction dependent values of activation energy were suggested to be the result of multi-stage reactions during the reduction process. Furthermore, the variation of activation energy value was smoothed after heat treatment of hematite particles.(OLD) MSE-

    Drag coefficient of vegetation in flow modeling

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    Poster. The interaction between aquatic plants and hydrodynamic force and its implication on the long-term landscape development have received intention from ecology, geology and hydraulic engineering.Hydraulic EngineeringCivil Engineering and Geoscience

    28 GHz Quadrature Frequency Generation Exploiting Injection-Locked Harmonic Extractors for 5G Communications

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    This paper proposes a mm-wave quadrature frequency generator using injection-locked harmonic extractors (HEs) incorporated with quadrature class-F oscillators. While maintaining high output levels at 28 GHz, the utilization of injection locking technique improves the effective quality (QQ)-factor and helps to achieve a fundamental harmonic suppression of 60 dB. This results in an FoM of the entire frequency generation system reaching -184 dB. The consideration of quadrature phase mismatch induced by electromagnetic coupling between quadrature buffers is also discussed.Electronic

    Effects of Defect and Temperature on the Mechanical Performance of WS<sub>2</sub>: A Multiscale Analysis

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    This paper analyzes the mechanical properties of tungsten disulfide (WS2) by means of multiscale simulation, including density functional theory (DFT), molecular dynamic (MD) analysis, and finite element analysis (FEA). We first conducted MD analysis to calculate the mechanical properties (i.e., Young's modulus and critical stress) of WS2. The influence of different defect types (i.e., point defects and line defects) on the mechanical properties are discussed. The results reveal that WS2 has a high Young's modulus and high critical stress. Next, the effects of defect density and temperature on the mechanical properties of the material were analyzed. The results show that a lower defect density results in improved performance and a higher temperature results in better ductility, which indicate that WS2 can potentially be a strain sensor. Based on this result, FEA was employed to analyze the WS2 stress sensor and then fabricate and analyze the device for benchmarking. It is found that the FEA model proposed in this work can be used for further optimization of the device. According to the DFT results, a narrower band gap WS2 is found with the existence of defects and the applied strain. The proposed multiscale simulation method can effectively analyze the mechanical properties of WS2 and optimize the design. Moreover, this method can be extended to other 2D/nanomaterials, providing a reference for a rapid and effective systematic design from the nanoscale to macroscale. Electronic Components, Technology and Material

    Interaction between hydrodynamics and salt marsh dynamics: An example from Jiangsu coast

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    Salt marshes are distributed along more than 400 km of the Jiangsu coast in Eastern China, which are regarded as important habitats and serve as coastal protection as well. Previous research has proven that salt-marsh vegetation can reduce current velocity and dampen waves by its stems and leaves. Reversely, hydrodynamic forces also have a significant influence on the growth of salt-marsh vegetation. To study the interaction between hydrodynamics and salt-marsh development on the Jiangsu coast, a 2D schematized model has been built by using a new interactive structure between flow, wave and vegetation modules of the process-based model Delft3D. In the hydrodynamic simulations, the impact of vegetation on waves and currents is quantified. In the vegetation growth module, the development of salt marshes is influenced by inundation time and shear stress from hydrodynamic simulations. The feedback loop is completed by hydrodynamic modules receiving the newly updated data of salt-marsh field from the vegetation growth module. The results show that wave height and current velocity are significantly influenced by vegetation. Reversely, the dynamics of marsh vegetation greatly rely on hydrodynamic conditions. Consequently, this interaction between hydrodynamics and salt marsh induces temporal variations of each other. In the model, the salt marsh is especially sensitive to the waves. Though wave height is relatively small on the Jiangsu coast, in terms of bed shear stress, waves may be of great importance to the development of salt marsh.WaterbouwkundeCivil Engineering and Geoscience

    Design of a plant producing 500,000 tones/annum synthetic oil products from natural gas, using Fischer-Tropsch technology

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    Document(en) uit de collectie Chemische ProcestechnologieDelftChemTechApplied Science
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