801 research outputs found

    Gut Colonization by ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli in Dogs Is Associated with a Distinct Microbiome and Resistome Composition

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    ABSTRACT The gut microbiome of humans and animals acts as a reservoir of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC). Dogs are known for having a high prevalence of ESBL-EC in their gut microbiota, although their ESBL-EC carrier status often shifts over time. We hypothesized that the gut microbiome composition of dogs is implicated in ESBL-EC colonization status. Therefore, we assessed whether ESBL-EC carriage in dogs is associated with changes in the gut microbiome and resistome. Fecal samples were collected longitudinally from 57 companion dogs in the Netherlands every 2 weeks for a total of 6 weeks (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ4 samples/dog). Carriage of ESBL-EC was determined through selective culturing and PCR and in line with previous studies, we observed a high prevalence of ESBL-EC carriage in dogs. Using 16s rRNA gene profiling we found significant associations between detected ESBL-EC carriage and an increased abundance of Clostridium sensu stricto 1, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, and the shared genera of Escherichia-Shigella in the dog microbiome. A resistome capture sequencing approach (ResCap) furthermore, revealed associations between detected ESBL-EC carriage and the increased abundance of the antimicrobial resistance genes: cmlA, dfrA, dhfR, floR, and sul3. In summary, our study showed that ESBL-EC carriage is associated with a distinct microbiome and resistome composition. IMPORTANCE The gut microbiome of humans and animals is an important source of multidrug resistant pathogens, including beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC). In this study, we assessed if the carriage of ESBL-EC in dogs was associated with changes in gut composition of bacteria and antimicrobial resistant genes (ARGs). Therefore, stool samples from 57 dogs were collected every 2 weeks for a total of 6 weeks. Sixty eight percent of the dogs carried ESBL-EC during at least one of the time points analyzed. By investigating the gut microbiome and resistome composition, we observed specific changes at time points when dogs were colonized with ESBL-EC compared to time points whenESBL-EC were not detected. In conclusion, our study highlights the importance to study the microbial diversity in companion animals, as gut colonization of particular antimicrobial resistant bacteria might be an indication of a changed microbial composition that is associated with the selection of particular ARGs

    Integrated global assessment of the natural forest carbon potential

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    Forests are a substantial terrestrial carbon sink, but anthropogenic changes in land use and climate have considerably reduced the scale of this system 1. Remote-sensing estimates to quantify carbon losses from global forests 2‚Äď5 are characterized by considerable uncertainty and we lack a comprehensive ground-sourced evaluation to benchmark these estimates. Here we combine several ground-sourced 6 and satellite-derived approaches 2,7,8 to evaluate the scale of the global forest carbon potential outside agricultural and urban lands. Despite regional variation, the predictions demonstrated remarkable consistency at a global scale, with only¬†a 12% difference between the ground-sourced and satellite-derived estimates. At present, global forest carbon storage is markedly under the natural potential, with a total deficit of 226 Gt (model range = 151‚Äď363 Gt) in areas with low human footprint. Most (61%, 139 Gt C) of this potential is in areas with existing forests, in which ecosystem protection can allow forests to recover to maturity. The remaining 39% (87 Gt C) of potential lies in regions in which forests have been removed or fragmented. Although forests cannot be a substitute for emissions reductions, our results support the idea 2,3,9 that the conservation, restoration and sustainable management of diverse forests offer valuable contributions to meeting global climate and biodiversity targets

    Evenness mediates the global relationship between forest productivity and richness

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    Biodiversity is an important component of natural ecosystems, with higher species richness often correlating with an increase in ecosystem productivity. Yet, this relationship varies substantially across environments, typically becoming less pronounced at high levels of species richness. However, species richness alone cannot reflect all important properties of a community, including community evenness, which may mediate the relationship between biodiversity and productivity. If the evenness of a community correlates negatively with richness across forests globally, then a greater number of species may not always increase overall diversity and productivity of the system. Theoretical work and local empirical studies have shown that the effect of evenness on ecosystem functioning may be especially strong at high richness levels, yet the consistency of this remains untested at a global scale. 2. Here, we used a dataset of forests from across the globe, which includes composition, biomass accumulation and net primary productivity, to explore whether productivity correlates with community evenness and richness in a way that evenness appears to buffer the effect of richness. Specifically, we evaluated whether low levels of evenness in speciose communities correlate with the attenuation of the richness‚Äďproductivity relationship. 3. We found that tree species richness and evenness are negatively correlated across forests globally, with highly speciose forests typically comprising a few dominant and many rare species. Furthermore, we found that the correlation between diversity and productivity changes with evenness: at low richness, uneven communities are more productive, while at high richness, even communities are more productive. 4. Synthesis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that evenness is an integral component of the relationship between biodiversity and productivity, and that the attenuating effect of richness on forest productivity might be partly explained by low evenness in speciose communities. Productivity generally increases with species richness, until reduced evenness limits the overall increases in community diversity. Our research suggests that evenness is a fundamental component of biodiversity‚Äďecosystem function relationships, and is of critical importance for guiding conservation and sustainable ecosystem management decisions. ¬© 2023 The Authors. Journal of Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society

    Integrated global assessment of the natural forest carbon potential

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    Forests are a substantial terrestrial carbon sink, but anthropogenic changes in land use and climate have considerably reduced the scale of this system1. Remote-sensing estimates to quantify carbon losses from global forests2‚Äď5 are characterized by considerable uncertainty and we lack a comprehensive ground-sourced evaluation to benchmark these estimates. Here we combine several ground-sourced6 and satellite-derived approaches2,7,8 to evaluate the scale of the global forest carbon potential outside agricultural and urban lands. Despite regional variation, the predictions demonstrated remarkable consistency at a global scale, with only¬†a 12% difference between the ground-sourced and satellite-derived estimates. At present, global forest carbon storage is markedly under the natural potential, with a total deficit of 226‚ÄČGt (model range‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ151‚Äď363‚ÄČGt) in areas with low human footprint. Most (61%, 139‚ÄČGt‚ÄČC) of this potential is in areas with existing forests, in which ecosystem protection can allow forests to recover to maturity. The remaining 39% (87‚ÄČGt‚ÄČC) of potential lies in regions in which forests have been removed or fragmented. Although forests cannot be a substitute for emissions reductions, our results support the idea2,3,9 that the conservation, restoration and sustainable management of diverse forests offer valuable contributions to meeting global climate and biodiversity targets

    Extravasation of biodegradable microspheres in the rat brain

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    Drug development for neurological diseases is greatly impeded by the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We and others previously reported on extravasation of micrometer-sized particles from the cerebral microcirculation - across the BBB - into the brain tissue over the course of several weeks. This mechanism could potentially be used for sustained parenchymal drug delivery after extravasation of biodegradable microspheres. As a first step toward this goal, we set out to evaluate the extravasation potential in the rat brain of three classes of biodegradable microspheres with drug-carrying potential, having a median diameter of 13‚ÄȬĶm (80% within 8-18‚ÄȬĶm) and polyethylene glycol concentrations of 0%, 24% and 36%. Extravasation, capillary recanalization and tissue damage were determined in a rat cerebral microembolization model at day 14 after microsphere injection. Microspheres of all three classes had the potential to extravasate from the vessel into the brain parenchyma, with microspheres without polyethylene glycol extravasating the fastest. Microembolization with biodegradable microspheres led to impaired local capillary perfusion, which was substantially restored after bead extravasation. We did not observe overt tissue damage after microembolization with any microsphere: we found very limited BBB disruption (IgG extravasation), no microgliosis (Iba1 staining) and no large neuronal infarctions (NeuN staining). In conclusion, biodegradable microspheres with different polymer compositions can extravasate into the brain parenchyma while causing minimal tissue damage

    Evenness mediates the global relationship between forest productivity and richness

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    Funding: This research has been funded by a grant from DOB Ecology. Swiss National Science Foundation, Ambizione grant #PZ00P3_193612 to DSM. JCS considers this work a contribution to his VILLUM Investigator project ‚ÄėBiodiversity Dynamics in a Changing World‚Äô funded by VILLUM FONDEN (grant 16549). The GFBI data from New Zealand were drawn from the Natural Forest plot data collected between January 2009 and March 2014 by the LUCAS programme for the New Zealand Ministry for the Environment and sourced from the New Zealand National Vegetation Survey Databank‚Äô. Instituto de Conserva√ß√£o da Natureza. FCT‚ÄĒUIDB/04033/2020. Open access funding provided by Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.1. Biodiversity is an important component of natural ecosystems, with higher species richness often correlating with an increase in ecosystem productivity. Yet, this relationship varies substantially across environments, typically becoming less pronounced at high levels of species richness. However, species richness alone cannot reflect all important properties of a community, including community evenness, which may mediate the relationship between biodiversity and productivity. If the evenness of a community correlates negatively with richness across forests globally, then a greater number of species may not always increase overall diversity and productivity of the system. Theoretical work and local empirical studies have shown that the effect of evenness on ecosystem functioning may be especially strong at high richness levels, yet the consistency of this remains untested at a global scale. 2. Here, we used a dataset of forests from across the globe, which includes composition, biomass accumulation and net primary productivity, to explore whether productivity correlates with community evenness and richness in a way that evenness appears to buffer the effect of richness. Specifically, we evaluated whether low levels of evenness in speciose communities correlate with the attenuation of the richness‚Äďproductivity relationship. 3. We found that tree species richness and evenness are negatively correlated across forests globally, with highly speciose forests typically comprising a few dominant and many rare species. Furthermore, we found that the correlation between diversity and productivity changes with evenness: at low richness, uneven communities are more productive, while at high richness, even communities are more productive. 4. Synthesis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that evenness is an integral component of the relationship between biodiversity and productivity, and that the attenuating effect of richness on forest productivity might be partly explained by low evenness in speciose communities. Productivity generally increases with species richness, until reduced evenness limits the overall increases in community diversity. Our research suggests that evenness is a fundamental component of biodiversity‚Äďecosystem function relationships, and is of critical importance for guiding conservation and sustainable ecosystem management decisions.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Integrated global assessment of the natural forest carbon potential

    Get PDF
    Forests are a substantial terrestrial carbon sink, but anthropogenic changes in land use and climate have considerably reduced the scale of this system 1. Remote-sensing estimates to quantify carbon losses from global forests 2‚Äď5 are characterized by considerable uncertainty and we lack a comprehensive ground-sourced evaluation to benchmark these estimates. Here we combine several ground-sourced 6 and satellite-derived approaches 2,7,8 to evaluate the scale of the global forest carbon potential outside agricultural and urban lands. Despite regional variation, the predictions demonstrated remarkable consistency at a global scale, with only¬†a 12% difference between the ground-sourced and satellite-derived estimates. At present, global forest carbon storage is markedly under the natural potential, with a total deficit of 226 Gt (model range = 151‚Äď363 Gt) in areas with low human footprint. Most (61%, 139 Gt C) of this potential is in areas with existing forests, in which ecosystem protection can allow forests to recover to maturity. The remaining 39% (87 Gt C) of potential lies in regions in which forests have been removed or fragmented. Although forests cannot be a substitute for emissions reductions, our results support the idea 2,3,9 that the conservation, restoration and sustainable management of diverse forests offer valuable contributions to meeting global climate and biodiversity targets.</p

    Evenness mediates the global relationship between forest productivity and richness

    Get PDF
    1. Biodiversity is an important component of natural ecosystems, with higher species richness often correlating with an increase in ecosystem productivity. Yet, this relationship varies substantially across environments, typically becoming less pronounced at high levels of species richness. However, species richness alone cannot reflect all important properties of a community, including community evenness, which may mediate the relationship between biodiversity and productivity. If the evenness of a community correlates negatively with richness across forests globally, then a greater number of species may not always increase overall diversity and productivity of the system. Theoretical work and local empirical studies have shown that the effect of evenness on ecosystem functioning may be especially strong at high richness levels, yet the consistency of this remains untested at a global scale. 2. Here, we used a dataset of forests from across the globe, which includes composition, biomass accumulation and net primary productivity, to explore whether productivity correlates with community evenness and richness in a way that evenness appears to buffer the effect of richness. Specifically, we evaluated whether low levels of evenness in speciose communities correlate with the attenuation of the richness‚Äďproductivity relationship. 3. We found that tree species richness and evenness are negatively correlated across forests globally, with highly speciose forests typically comprising a few dominant and many rare species. Furthermore, we found that the correlation between diversity and productivity changes with evenness: at low richness, uneven communities are more productive, while at high richness, even communities are more productive. 4. Synthesis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that evenness is an integral component of the relationship between biodiversity and productivity, and that the attenuating effect of richness on forest productivity might be partly explained by low evenness in speciose communities. Productivity generally increases with species richness, until reduced evenness limits the overall increases in community diversity. Our research suggests that evenness is a fundamental component of biodiversity‚Äď ecosystem function relationships, and is of critical importance for guiding conservation and sustainable ecosystem management decisions
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