127 research outputs found

    Synthesis and Characterization of a Low-Bandgap Poly(arylene ethynylene) Having Donor–Acceptor Type Chromophores in the Side Chain

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    Synthesis and Characterization of a Low-Bandgap Poly(arylene ethynylene) Having Donor–Acceptor Type Chromophores in the Side Chai

    Relationship between RELN mRNA expression level and clinicopathological features in 40 primary ESCC samples.

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    <p>RELN expression means mRNA expression in human ESCC tissues described in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031802#pone-0031802-g006" target="_blank">Figure 6</a>.</p><p>Student's <i>t</i> test was used to examine the difference of RELN mRNA levels.</p

    Snail regulates RELN expression in ESCC cells.

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    <p><b>A&B</b>: Snail protein was increased (<b>A</b>) and RELN mRNA was decreased (<b>B</b>) in a time-dependent manner after 5 ng/ml TGF-β1 treatment in KYSE-510 cells. β-actin served as the loading control in Western blot. <b>C</b>: RT-qPCR analysis showing that Snail down-regulates RELN mRNA expression in KYSE30 and KYSE-510 cells. Data represent the mean ± SD of triplicate experiments. *, <i>p</i><0.05. <b>D</b>: Snail down-regulates RELN promoter activity in KYSE-30 and KYSE510 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Data represent the mean ± SD of triplicate experiments. <b>E</b>: Snail binds to the RELN promoter after TGF-β1 treatment in KYSE-510 cells. Schematic representation of RELN promoter region, +1 = transcription start site (<i>left</i>). ChIP assay was carried out by using a rabbit anti-Snail antibody or the rabbit IgG as described in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031802#s4" target="_blank"><i>Materials and Methods</i></a>. The presence of sequences corresponding to RELN promoters and β-actin were analyzed, and β-actin served as the negative control (<i>right</i>).</p

    TGF-β1 treatment decreased RELN transcriptional activity, but did not affect RELN mRNA stability.

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    <p><b>A</b>: TGF-β1 down-regulated the RELN promoter activity. KYSE-510 cells were transiently transfected with pGL3-basic and the RELN promoter-luciferase construct, and simultaneously treated by 5 ng/ml TGF-β1 at 24 hours after transfection. Data represent the mean ± SD of triplicate experiments. *, <i>p</i><0.05. B. KYSE-510 cells were treated with or without 5 ng/ml TGF-β1 for 1 hour followed by actinomycin D (<i>Act D</i>; 5 µg/ml) treatment for the indicated time. RELN mRNA level was measured by RT-qPCR (<i>left</i>) and plotted on a logarithmic scale to calculate the time required for each mRNA to reach one-half of its initial abundance (<i>right</i>). Dotted line represents RELN mRNA expression after TGF-β1 treatment and straight line represents RELN mRNA expression of untreated control.</p

    Role of Reelin in cell migration.

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    <p><b>A</b>: RT-PCR analysis showing RELN mRNA level in RELN and scramble siRNAs transfected cells, and GAPDH was used as an internal control. <b>B</b>: Transwell assay showing that RELN knockdown increased cell migration. Cells were stained with crystal violet (<i>left</i>). The bar graph shows the relative number of migrated cells from three independent experiments (mean+SE, <i>right</i>). *, p<0.05. <b>C</b>: RT-PCR analysis showing RELN mRNA level in RELN shRNA and scramble clones. <b>D</b>: Transwell assay showing cell migration of the RELN shRNA and scramble clones. Cells were stained with crystal violet (<i>top</i>). The bar graph shows the relative number of migrated cells from three independent experiments (mean+SE, <i>bottom</i>). *, <i>p</i><0.05. <b>E</b>: RT-qPCR showing the mRNA expression of some EMT markers in RELN shRNA and scramble clones. Data represent the mean ± SD of triplicate experiments.</p

    TGF-β1 suppressed RELN expression and transient transfection of Reelin blocked TGF-β1-induced cell migration.

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    <p><b>A</b>: RT-PCR analysis showing RELN mRNA expression in eight ESCC cell lines, GAPDH was used as an internal control. <b>B</b>: Reelin protein was localized in cytoplasm in KYSE-510 cells by immunostaining. Mouse IgG was used as isotype negative control. <i>Scale bar</i>: 20 µm. <b>C</b>: KYSE-510 cells were treated with 5 ng/ml TGF-β1, RELN mRNA expression was examined by RT-PCR, and GAPDH was used as an internal control. <b>D</b>: Western blot for Reelin protein using whole cell extract at 48 hours after reelin (pCrl) transfection in KYSE-30 cells. β-actin served as the loading control. <b>E</b>: 5 ng/ml TGF-β1 was added in media for 24 hours after pCrl transfection and Transwell assay was performed at 48 hours after transfection (<i>left</i>). The bar graph shows the relative number of migrated cells from three independent experiments (<i>right</i>). Data represent the mean ± SD of triplicate experiments. *, <i>p</i><0.05.</p

    Flowsheet Simulation of Cobalt–Nickel Separation by Solvent Extraction with Trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium Chloride

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    Solvent extraction is widely used for selective separation of metals from solutions. Ionic liquids are showing potential for this purpose. To date, little research has focused on design, operation, and optimization of solvent extraction flowsheets using ionic liquids. This work addresses this gap in knowledge, aiming to support development, design, and optimization of such solvent extraction processes. In this work, a general flowsheet simulation model is developed and applied for the case of cobalt–nickel separation using ionic liquid trihexyl­(tetradecyl)­phosphonium chloride ([P<sub>66614</sub>]­Cl). All components are treated as distributing between the two phases and are modeled using distribution coefficient models derived from published experimental data and ab initio computational results. The rate of mass transfer between the two phases is calculated using a mass transfer model. Simulation results are shown to be generally in good agreement with published experimental results

    Functional classify of ESTs identified by suppression subtractive hybridization.

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    <p>Unigenes (114 numbers) found to be upregulated in response to nodulation in the present study were grouped into 13 functional categories.</p

    Autophagy pathway induced by a plant virus facilitates viral spread and transmission by its insect vector

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    <div><p>Many viral pathogens are persistently transmitted by insect vectors and cause agricultural or health problems. Generally, an insect vector can use autophagy as an intrinsic antiviral defense mechanism against viral infection. Whether viruses can evolve to exploit autophagy to promote their transmission by insect vectors is still unknown. Here, we show that the autophagic process is triggered by the persistent replication of a plant reovirus, rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) in cultured leafhopper vector cells and in intact insects, as demonstrated by the appearance of obvious virus-containing double-membrane autophagosomes, conversion of ATG8-I to ATG8-II and increased level of autophagic flux. Such virus-containing autophagosomes seem able to mediate nonlytic viral release from cultured cells or facilitate viral spread in the leafhopper intestine. Applying the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or silencing the expression of <i>Atg5</i> significantly decrease viral spread <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>, whereas applying the autophagy inducer rapamycin or silencing the expression of <i>Torc1</i> facilitate such viral spread. Furthermore, we find that activation of autophagy facilitates efficient viral transmission, whereas inhibiting autophagy blocks viral transmission by its insect vector. Together, these results indicate a plant virus can induce the formation of autophagosomes for carrying virions, thus facilitating viral spread and transmission by its insect vector. We believe that such a role for virus-induced autophagy is common for vector-borne persistent viruses during their transmission by insect vectors.</p></div

    Relative expression levels of nine transcription genes in six developmental stages during nodulation by qRT-PCR.

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    <p>The six stages are: 0 dai, 4 dai, 10 dai, 14 dai, 18 dai, and N20 (nodules removed from 20 dai roots). Data were normalized to 18S rRNA (<i>R. pseudoacacia</i>) expression and are presented as mean ± SEM and calculated over biological replicate (n = 2) and technical replicate (n = 3) mRNA.</p
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