9,446 research outputs found

    Posterior stability of the shoulder depends on acromial anatomy: a biomechanical study of 3D surface models

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    PURPOSE Primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis is commonly associated with static posterior subluxation of the humeral head. Scapulae with static/dynamic posterior instability feature a superiorly and horizontally oriented acromion. We investigated whether the acromion acts as a restraint to posterior humeral translation. METHODS Five three-dimensional (3D) printed scapula models were biomechanically tested. A statistical shape mean model (SSMM) of the normal scapula of 40 asymptomatic shoulders was fabricated. Next, a SSMM of scapular anatomy associated with posterior subluxation was generated using data of 20 scapulae ("B1"). This model was then used to generate three models of surgical correction: glenoid version, acromial orientation, and acromial and glenoid orientation. With the joint axially loaded (100N) and the humerus stabilized, an anterior translation force was applied to the scapula in 35°, 60° and 75° of glenohumeral flexion. Translation (mm) was measured. RESULTS In the normal scapula, the humerus translates significantly less to contact with the acromion compared to all other configurations (p < .000 for all comparisons; i.e. 35°: "normal" 8,1 mm (± 0,0) versus "B1" 11,9 mm (± 0,0) versus "B1 Acromion Correction" 12,2 mm (± 0,2) versus "B1 Glenoid Correction" 13,3 mm (± 0,1)). Restoration of normal translation was only achieved with correction of glenoid and acromial anatomy (i.e. 75°: "normal" 11 mm (± 0,8) versus "B1 Acromion Correction" 17,5 mm (± 0,1) versus "B1 Glenoid Correction" 19,7 mm (± 1,3) versus "B1 Glenoid + Acromion Correction" 11,5 mm (± 1,1)). CONCLUSIONS Persistence or recurrence of static/dynamic posterior instability after correction of glenoid version alone may be related to incomplete restoration of the intrinsic stability that is conferred by a normal acromial anatomy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE V biomechanical study

    External validation of the PAGE-B score for HCC risk prediction in people living with HIV/HBV coinfection

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    Background & Aims: HBV coinfection is common among people living with HIV (PLWH) and is the most important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While risk prediction tools for HCC have been validated in patients with HBV monoinfection, they have not been evaluated in PLWH. Thus, we performed an external validation of PAGE-B in people with HIV/HBV coinfection. Methods: We included data on PLWH from four European cohorts who were positive for HBsAg and did not have HCC before starting tenofovir. We estimated the predictive performance of PAGE-B for HCC occurrence over 15 years in patients receiving tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy. Model discrimination was assessed after multiple imputation using Cox regression with the prognostic index as a covariate, and by calculating Harrell's c-index. Calibration was assessed by comparing our cumulative incidence with the PAGE-B derivation study using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: In total, 2,963 individuals with HIV/HBV coinfection on tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy were included. PAGE-B was <10 in 26.5%, 10–17 in 57.7%, and ≄18 in 15.7% of patients. Within a median follow-up of 9.6 years, HCC occurred in 68 individuals (2.58/1,000 patient-years, 95% CI 2.03–3.27). The regression slope of the prognostic index for developing HCC within 15 years was 0.93 (95% CI 0.61–1.25), and the pooled c-index was 0.77 (range 0.73–0.80), both indicating good model discrimination. The cumulative incidence of HCC was lower in our study compared to the derivation study. A PAGE-B cut-off of <10 had a negative predictive value of 99.4% for the development of HCC within 5 years. Restricting efforts to individuals with a PAGE-B of ≄10 would spare unnecessary HCC screening in 27% of individuals. Conclusions: For individuals with HIV/HBV coinfection, PAGE-B is a valid tool to determine the need for HCC screening. Impact and implications: Chronic HBV infection is the most important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among people living with HIV. Valid risk prediction may enable better targeting of HCC screening efforts to high-risk individuals. We aimed to validate PAGE-B, a risk prediction tool that is based on age, sex, and platelets, in 2,963 individuals with HIV/HBV coinfection who received tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy. In the present study, PAGE-B showed good discrimination, adequate calibration, and a cut-off of <10 had a negative predictive value of 99.4% for the development of HCC within 5 years. These results indicate that PAGE-B is a simple and valid risk prediction tool to determine the need for HCC screening among people living with HIV and HBV

    Neurocognitive outcome and mental health in children with tyrosinemia type 1 and phenylketonuria: A comparison between two genetic disorders affecting the same metabolic pathway

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    Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) and phenylketonuria (PKU) are both inborn errors of phenylalanine–tyrosine metabolism. Neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes have always featured in PKU research but received less attention in TT1 research. This study aimed to investigate and compare neurocognitive, behavioral, and social outcomes of treated TT1 and PKU patients. We included 33 TT1 patients (mean age 11.24 years; 16 male), 31 PKU patients (mean age 10.84; 14 male), and 58 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age 10.82 years; 29 male). IQ (Wechsler-subtests), executive functioning (the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning), mental health (the Achenbach-scales), and social functioning (the Social Skills Rating System) were assessed. Results of TT1 patients, PKU patients, and healthy controls were compared using Kruskal–Wallis tests with post-hoc Mann–Whitney U tests. TT1 patients showed a lower IQ and poorer executive functioning, mental health, and social functioning compared to healthy controls and PKU patients. PKU patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding these outcome measures. Relatively poor outcomes for TT1 patients were particularly evident for verbal IQ, BRIEF dimensions “working memory”, “plan and organize” and “monitor”, ASEBA dimensions “social problems” and “attention problems”, and for the SSRS “assertiveness” scale (all p values <0.001). To conclude, TT1 patients showed cognitive impairments on all domains studied, and appeared to be significantly more affected than PKU patients. More attention should be paid to investigating and monitoring neurocognitive outcome in TT1 and research should focus on explaining the underlying pathophysiological mechanism

    Validity evidence and measurement equivalence for the Dutch translation of the conditional reasoning test for aggression

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    The Conditional Reasoning Test for Aggression (CRT-A) indirectly measures the implicit motive to aggress by engaging respondents in inductive reasoning tasks. Most research involving the CRT-A has been based on the original English version of the test with most data being collected in the United States. The purpose of the current paper is to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Dutch translation of this test and to examine if it could be used to predict measures of integrity. In the first of two studies, we evaluated the psychometric properties and measurement equivalence of the CRT-A across US and Dutch samples. In the second study, we examined validity evidence for the Dutch version of the CRT-A. Results from Study 1 indicated that the test was mostly equivalent across cultures (i.e. limited differential item functioning was detected). Results from Study 2 demonstrated that the Dutch version of the CRT-A was correlated with measures of behavioral integrity and provided incremental prediction of integrity over and above traditional self-report measures of explicit personality traits. We discuss the implications for using CRTs across different cultures and languages

    Neurocognitive outcome and mental health in children with tyrosinemia type 1 and phenylketonuria: A comparison between two genetic disorders affecting the same metabolic pathway

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    Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) and phenylketonuria (PKU) are both inborn errors of phenylalanine-tyrosine metabolism. Neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes have always featured in PKU research but received less attention in TT1 research. This study aimed to investigate and compare neurocognitive, behavioral, and social outcomes of treated TT1 and PKU patients. We included 33 TT1 patients (mean age 11.24 years; 16 male), 31 PKU patients (mean age 10.84; 14 male), and 58 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age 10.82 years; 29 male). IQ (Wechsler-subtests), executive functioning (the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning), mental health (the Achenbach-scales), and social functioning (the Social Skills Rating System) were assessed. Results of TT1 patients, PKU patients, and healthy controls were compared using Kruskal-Wallis tests with post-hoc Mann-Whitney U tests. TT1 patients showed a lower IQ and poorer executive functioning, mental health, and social functioning compared to healthy controls and PKU patients. PKU patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding these outcome measures. Relatively poor outcomes for TT1 patients were particularly evident for verbal IQ, BRIEF dimensions "working memory", "plan and organize" and "monitor", ASEBA dimensions "social problems" and "attention problems", and for the SSRS "assertiveness" scale (all p values <0.001). To conclude, TT1 patients showed cognitive impairments on all domains studied, and appeared to be significantly more affected than PKU patients. More attention should be paid to investigating and monitoring neurocognitive outcome in TT1 and research should focus on explaining the underlying pathophysiological mechanism

    Diagnostic parameters of cellular tests for Lyme borreliosis in Europe (VICTORY study): a case-control study

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    Background: Cellular tests for Lyme borreliosis might be able to overcome major shortcomings of serological testing, such as its low sensitivity in early stages of infection. Therefore, we aimed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of three cellular tests. Methods: This was a nationwide, prospective, multiple-gate case-control study done in the Netherlands. Patients with physician-confirmed Lyme borreliosis, either early localised or disseminated, were consecutively included as cases at the start of antibiotic treatment. Controls were those without Lyme borreliosis from the general population (healthy controls) and those with potentially cross-reactive conditions (eg, autoimmune disease). We used three cellular tests for Lyme borreliosis (Spirofind Revised, iSpot Lyme, and LTT-MELISA) as index tests, and standard two-tier serological testing (STTT) as a comparator. Clinical data from Lyme borreliosis patients were collected at baseline and at 12 weeks after inclusion, and blood samples were obtained at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Control participants underwent clinical and laboratory assessments at baseline only. Findings: Cases comprised 271 patients with Lyme borreliosis (of whom 245 had early-localised Lyme borreliosis and 26 had disseminated disease) and controls comprised 228 participants without Lyme borreliosis from the general population and 41 participants with potentially cross-reactive conditions. Recruitment occurred between May 14, 2018, and March 16, 2020. The specificity of STTT in healthy controls (216 of 228 samples [94·7%, 95% CI 91·5–97·7]) was higher than that of the cellular tests: Spirofind (140 of 171 [81·9%, 76·1–87·2]), iSpot Lyme (32 of 103 [31·1%, 21·5–40·3]) and LTT-MELISA (100 of 190 [52·6%, 44·9–60·3]). Cellular tests had varying sensitivities: Spirofind (88 of 204 [43·1%, 36·4–50·4]), iSpot Lyme (51 of 94 [54·3%, 44·5–63·7]), and LTT-MELISA (66 of 218 [30·3%, 23·8–36·7]). The Spirofind and iSpot Lyme outperformed STTT for sensitivity, but were similar to the C6-ELISA (C6-ELISA: 135 of 270 [50·0%, 44·5–55·5]; STTT: 76 of 270 [28·1%, 23·0–33·6]). Interpretation: The cellular tests for Lyme borreliosis used in this study have a low specificity compared with serological tests, which leads to a high number of false-positive test results. We conclude that these cellular tests are unfit for clinical use at this stage. Funding: Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development, AMC Foundation (Amsterdam UMC), and Ministry of Health of the Netherlands

    Development of explanatory movies for the delineation of new organs at risk in neuro-oncology

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    Ten new organs at risk (OARs) were recently introduced in the updated European Particle Therapy Network neurological contouring atlas. Despite the use of the illustrated atlas and descriptive text, interindividual contouring variations may persist. To further facilitate the contouring of these OARs, educational films were developed and published on www.cancerdata.org

    Geomorphology and shallow sub-sea-floor structures underneath the Ekström Ice Shelf, Antarctica

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    The Ekström Ice Shelf is one of numerous small ice shelves that fringe the coastline of western Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. Reconstructions of past ice-sheet extent in this area are poorly constrained, due to a lack of geomorphological evidence. Here, we present a compilation of geophysical surveys in front of and beneath the Ekström Ice Shelf, to identify and interpret evidence of past ice-sheet flow, extent and retreat. The sea floor beneath the Ekström Ice Shelf is dominated by an incised trough, which extends from the modern-day grounding line onto the continental shelf. Our surveys show that mega-scale glacial lineations cover most of the mouth of this trough, terminating 11 km away from the continental shelf break, indicating the most recent minimal extent of grounded ice in this region. Beneath the front ∌30 km of the ice shelf measured from the ice shelf edge towards the inland direction, the sea floor is characterised by an acoustically transparent sedimentary unit, up to 45 m thick. This is likely composed of subglacial till, further corroborating the presence of past grounded ice cover. Further inland, the sea floor becomes rougher, interpreted as a transition from subglacial tills to a crystalline bedrock, corresponding to the outcrop of the volcanic Explora Wedge at the sea floor. Ice retreat in this region appears to have happened rapidly in the centre of the incised trough, evidenced by a lack of overprinting of the lineations at the trough mouth. At the margins of the trough uniformly spaced recessional moraines suggest ice retreated more gradually. We estimate the palaeo-ice thickness at the calving front around the Last Glacial Maximum to have been at least 305 to 320 m, based on the depth of iceberg ploughmarks within the trough and sea level reconstructions. Given the similarity of the numerous small ice shelves along the Dronning Maud Land coast, these findings are likely representative for other ice shelves in this region and provide essential boundary conditions for palaeo ice-sheet models in this severely understudied region

    A highly virulent variant of HIV-1 circulating in the Netherlands

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    We discovered a highly virulent variant of subtype-B HIV-1 in the Netherlands. One hundred nine individuals with this variant had a 0.54 to 0.74 log10 increase (i.e., a ~3.5-fold to 5.5-fold increase) in viral load compared with, and exhibited CD4 cell decline twice as fast as, 6604 individuals with other subtype-B strains. Without treatment, advanced HIV-CD4 cell counts below 350 cells per cubic millimeter, with long-term clinical consequences-is expected to be reached, on average, 9 months after diagnosis for individuals in their thirties with this variant. Age, sex, suspected mode of transmission, and place of birth for the aforementioned 109 individuals were typical for HIV-positive people in the Netherlands, which suggests that the increased virulence is attributable to the viral strain. Genetic sequence analysis suggests that this variant arose in the 1990s from de novo mutation, not recombination, with increased transmissibility and an unfamiliar molecular mechanism of virulence
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