129 research outputs found

    Dense nuclear matter equation of state from heavy-ion collisions

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    International audienceThe nuclear equation of state (EOS) is at the center of numerous theoretical and experimental efforts in nuclear physics. With advances in microscopic theories for nuclear interactions, the availability of experiments probing nuclear matter under conditions not reached before, endeavors to develop sophisticated and reliable transport simulations to interpret these experiments, and the advent of multi-messenger astronomy, the next decade will bring new opportunities for determining the nuclear matter EOS, elucidating its dependence on density, temperature, and isospin asymmetry. Among controlled terrestrial experiments, collisions of heavy nuclei at intermediate beam energies (from a few tens of MeV/nucleon to about 25 GeV/nucleon in the fixed-target frame) probe the widest ranges of baryon density and temperature, enabling studies of nuclear matter from a few tenths to about 5 times the nuclear saturation density and for temperatures from a few to well above a hundred MeV, respectively. Collisions of neutron-rich isotopes further bring the opportunity to probe effects due to the isospin asymmetry. However, capitalizing on the enormous scientific effort aimed at uncovering the dense nuclear matter EOS, both at RHIC and at FRIB as well as at other international facilities, depends on the continued development of state-of-the-art hadronic transport simulations. This white paper highlights the essential role that heavy-ion collision experiments and hadronic transport simulations play in understanding strong interactions in dense nuclear matter, with an emphasis on how these efforts can be used together with microscopic approaches and neutron star studies to uncover the nuclear EOS

    Spectral Theorems for Generalized Weyl Nodes with Impurities in a Magnetic Field

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    We prove a few spectral theorems for the density of states of a Weyl node with arbitrary topology. We show that the density of extended states of a Weyl node with random impurity potentials remains gapless in the presence of a magnetic field. Therefore, a magnetic field precludes Anderson localization in Weyl semi-metals, when inter-node transitions are suppressed for smooth enough potentials. We also provide a rigorous quantum mechanical proof of the chiral magnetic effect for arbitrary topology of a Weyl node.Comment: Main article 6 pages, Supplemental Materials 9 pages, 1 figure, Added additional reference

    Dense Nuclear Matter Equation of State from Heavy-Ion Collisions

    No full text
    The nuclear equation of state (EOS) is at the center of numerous theoretical and experimental efforts in nuclear physics. With advances in microscopic theories for nuclear interactions, the availability of experiments probing nuclear matter under conditions not reached before, endeavors to develop sophisticated and reliable transport simulations to interpret these experiments, and the advent of multi-messenger astronomy, the next decade will bring new opportunities for determining the nuclear matter EOS, elucidating its dependence on density, temperature, and isospin asymmetry. Among controlled terrestrial experiments, collisions of heavy nuclei at intermediate beam energies (from a few tens of MeV/nucleon to about 25 GeV/nucleon in the fixed-target frame) probe the widest ranges of baryon density and temperature, enabling studies of nuclear matter from a few tenths to about 5 times the nuclear saturation density and for temperatures from a few to well above a hundred MeV, respectively. Collisions of neutron-rich isotopes further bring the opportunity to probe effects due to the isospin asymmetry. However, capitalizing on the enormous scientific effort aimed at uncovering the dense nuclear matter EOS, both at RHIC and at FRIB as well as at other international facilities, depends on the continued development of state-of-the-art hadronic transport simulations. This white paper highlights the role that heavy-ion collision experiments and hadronic transport simulations play in understanding strong interactions in dense nuclear matter, with an emphasis on how these efforts can be used together with microscopic approaches and neutron star studies to uncover the nuclear EOS

    Shear-induced anomalous transport and charge asymmetry of triangular flow in heavy-ion collisions

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    Chiral anomaly implies the existence of non-dissipative transport phenomena, such as the chiral magnetic effect. At second order in the derivative expansion, novel quantum transport phenomena emerge. In this paper, we focus on the anomalous transport driven by a combination of shear, vorticity and magnetic field. We find that the corresponding transport phenomena -- shear-induced chiral magnetic and chiral vortical effects (siCME and siCVE) -- induce characteristic charge correlations among the hadrons produced in heavy ion collisions. We propose the charge asymmetry of triangular flow as a signature of the anomalous transport, and estimate the strength of the signal, as well as the background, using hydrodynamical model simulations. We find that the signal-to-background ratio for the proposed observable is favorable for experimental detection.Comment: 7(main) + 12(supplementary) pages, 4 figures, final versio

    Non-Gaussian fluctuation dynamics in relativistic fluid

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    We consider non-equilibrium evolution of non-Gaussian fluctuations within relativistic hydrodynamics relevant for the QCD critical point search in heavy-ion collision experiments. We rely on the hierarchy of relaxation time scales, which emerges in the hydrodynamic regime near the critical point, to focus on the slowest mode such as the fluctuations of specific entropy, whose equilibrium magnitude, non-Gaussianity and typical relaxation time are increasing as the critical point is approached. We derive evolution equations for the non-Gaussian correlators of this diffusive mode in an arbitrary relativistic hydrodynamic flow. We compare with the simpler case of the stochastic diffusion on a static homogeneous background and identify terms which are specific to the case of the full hydrodynamics with pressure fluctuations and flow.Comment: 28 pages, 8 figure

    The BEST framework for the search for the QCD critical point and the chiral magnetic effect

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    International audienceThe Beam Energy Scan Theory (BEST) Collaboration was formed with the goal of providing a theoretical framework for analyzing data from the Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The physics goal of the BES program is the search for a conjectured QCD critical point as well as for manifestations of the chiral magnetic effect. We describe progress that has been made over the previous five years. This includes studies of the equation of state and equilibrium susceptibilities, the development of suitable initial state models, progress in constructing a hydrodynamic framework that includes fluctuations and anomalous transport effects, as well as the development of freezeout prescriptions and hadronic transport models. Finally, we address the challenge of integrating these components into a complete analysis framework. This document describes the collective effort of the BEST Collaboration and its collaborators around the world
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