201 research outputs found

    Withdrawal periods after treatment of pigs with oxytetracycline in- and outside the European Union

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    Withdrawal periods are used to avoid animals being delivered to slaughter before the concentration of the antimicrobial has declined to values below the maximum residue limit (MRL). This paper characterises the withdrawal periods in force for oxytetracycline 100 mg/ml for intramuscular use in pigs. We investigated the variation in duration of the withdrawal period between 68 oxytetracycline products from 29 countries in- and outside the European Union. More specifically, we tested whether there is a regional difference, a difference between major and minor pig meat exporting countries, whether the product is long-acting or not, and whether year of market authorisation correlated with the withdrawal period. The results showed a large variation in duration of the withdrawal periods, ranging from 5 to 40 days. Variation was observed both between and within countries. Moreover, major exporting countries were associated with a longer withdrawal period than minor exporting countries (P = 0.00099). There were no regional differences, and the year of market authorisation had no impact, but long-acting products had a shorter withdrawal period than short-acting products (P = 0.048). The variation in withdrawal periods observed questions the utility of using compliance with the withdrawal period as a means of assessing whether the meat is safe for consumption. This is particularly relevant when a pig producer unintentionally delivers pigs for slaughter before the withdrawal period has expired and, aware of this, informs the abattoir. The findings call for further harmonisation in determining the withdrawal periods for all veterinary medicinal products (VMP). Until this happens, if animals are prematurely sent to slaughter, we suggest that the concentration of the VMP at the time of slaughter is calculated and compared with the MRL to determine meat safety

    The Magnificent Five Images of Supernova Refsdal: Time Delay and Magnification Measurements

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    In late 2014, four images of supernova (SN) "Refsdal," the first known example of a strongly lensed SN with multiple resolved images, were detected in the MACS J1149 galaxy-cluster field. Following the images' discovery, the SN was predicted to reappear within hundreds of days at a new position ∼8'' away in the field. The observed reappearance in late 2015 makes it possible to carry out Refsdal's original proposal to use a multiply imaged SN to measure the Hubble constant H0, since the time delay between appearances should vary inversely with H0. Moreover, the position, brightness, and timing of the reappearance enable a novel test of the blind predictions of galaxy-cluster models, which are typically constrained only by the positions of multiply imaged galaxies. We have developed a new photometry pipeline that uses DOLPHOT to measure the fluxes of the five images of SN Refsdal from difference images. We apply four separate techniques to perform a blind measurement of the relative time delays and magnification ratios between the last image SX and the earlier images S1–S4. We measure the relative time delay of SX–S1 to be 376.05.5+5.6\displaystyle {376.0}_{-5.5}^{+5.6} days and the relative magnification to be 0.300.3+0.5\displaystyle {0.30}_{-0.3}^{+0.5}. This corresponds to a 1.5% precision on the time delay and 17% precision for the magnification ratios and includes uncertainties due to millilensing and microlensing. In an accompanying paper, we place initial and blind constraints on the value of the Hubble constant

    Uncovering the stellar structure of the dusty star-forming galaxy GN20 at z = 4.055 with MIRI/JWST

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    Luminous infrared galaxies at high redshifts (z > 4) include extreme starbursts that build their stellar mass over short periods of time, that is, of 100 Myr or less. These galaxies are considered to be the progenitors of massive quiescent galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z ∼ 2) but their stellar structure and buildup is unknown. Here, we present the first spatially resolved near-infrared (rest-frame 1.1 μm) imaging of GN20, one of the most luminous dusty star-forming galaxies known to date, observed at an epoch when the Universe was only 1.5 Gyr old. The 5.6 μm image taken with the JWST Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI/JWST) shows that GN20 is a very luminous galaxy (M1.1 μm,  AB = −25.01, uncorrected for internal extinction), with a stellar structure composed of a conspicuous central source and an extended envelope. The central source is an unresolved nucleus that carries 9% of the total flux. The nucleus is co-aligned with the peak of the cold dust emission, and offset by 3.9 kpc from the ultraviolet stellar emission. The diffuse stellar envelope is similar in size (3.6 kpc effective radius) to the clumpy CO molecular gas distribution. The centroid of the stellar envelope is offset by 1 kpc from the unresolved nucleus, suggesting GN20 is involved in an interaction or merger event supported by its location as the brightest galaxy in a proto-cluster. Additional faint stellar clumps appear to be associated with some of the UV- and CO-clumps. The stellar size of GN20 is larger by a factor of about 3 to 5 than known spheroids, disks, and irregulars at z ∼ 4, while its size and low Sérsic index are similar to those measured in dusty, infrared luminous galaxies at redshift 2 of the same mass (∼1011 M⊙). GN20 has all the ingredients necessary for evolving into a massive spheroidal quiescent galaxy at intermediate redshift: it is a large, luminous galaxy at z = 4.05 involved in a short and massive starburst centred in the stellar nucleus and extended over the entire galaxy, out to radii of 4 kpc, and likely induced by the interaction or merger with a member of the proto-cluster.ISSN:0004-6361ISSN:1432-074

    Constraints on the Hubble constant from Supernova Refsdal's reappearance

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    International audienceThe gravitationally lensed Supernova Refsdal appeared in multiple images, produced through gravitational lensing by a massive foreground galaxy cluster. After the supernova appeared in 2014, lens models of the galaxy cluster predicted an additional image of the supernova would appear in 2015, which was subsequently observed. We use the time delays between the images to perform a blinded measurement of the expansion rate of the Universe, quantified by the Hubble constant (H0). Using eight cluster lens models, we infer H0 = 64.8 +4.4-4.3 km / s / Mpc, where Mpc is the megaparsec. Using the two models most consistent with the observations, we find H0 = 66.6 +4.1-3.3 km / s / Mpc. The observations are best reproduced by models that assign dark-matter halos to individual galaxies and the overall cluster

    Feeling safe or falling through the cracks-Patients' experiences of healthcare in cirrhosis illness: A qualitative study.

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    IntroductionPatients with cirrhosis have a long-lasting relationship with medical personnel. Hierarchy in the healthcare contacts and feeling stigmatised may affect the patient's interactions with these care providers. Despite healthcare professionals' awareness of patients' increased self-care needs, patients report getting insufficient information and support. The patients' expectations and experiences of interacting with healthcare professionals in cirrhosis care is hence a research area that needs further investigation.PurposeTo capture patients' descriptions of healthcare experiences in relation to cirrhosis illness.Material and methodsData comprise semi-structured interviews (N = 18) and open-ended questionnaire responses (N = 86) of patients with cirrhosis. Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis process was used, including both semantic and inductive elements. The study is reported following the COREQ guidelines.FindingsThe analysis resulted in two themes: 1) Struggle to be in a dialogue and 2) Being helped or harmed. Six sub-themes were identified concerning aspects of experiences within each theme during the analysis. These sub-themes included: 'getting information', 'being involved', 'being perceived as a person', 'enduring care', 'feeling lost in the healthcare organisation', and 'not being taken care of'.ConclusionsPatients with cirrhosis express concerns regarding where to turn in the continuum of cirrhosis care. They emphasise the importance of being involved in the dialogue with the healthcare professional, to be perceived as a person with a unique need to be informed. The healthcare organisation and continuity of care are either viewed as confusing or as helping to shape a safe and trustful contact, which was an important difference in feeling helped or harmed. Hence, patients wished for improved collaboration with healthcare professionals and to receive increased information about their disease. Person-centred communication in nurse-led clinics may increase patient satisfaction and prevent patients from falling through the cracks

    A long-duration gamma-ray burst of dynamical origin from the nucleus of an ancient galaxy

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    The majority of long-duration (&gt;2 s) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) arise from the collapse of massive stars, with a small proportion created from the merger of compact objects. Most of these systems form via standard stellar evolution pathways. However, a fraction of GRBs may result from dynamical interactions in dense environments. These channels could also contribute substantially to the samples of compact object mergers detected as gravitational wave sources. Here we report the case of GRB 191019A, a long GRB (a duration of T 90 = 64.4 ± 4.5 s), which we pinpoint close (⪅100 pc projected) to the nucleus of an ancient (&gt;1 Gyr old) host galaxy at z = 0.248. The lack of evidence for star formation and deep limits on any supernova emission disfavour a massive star origin. The most likely route for progenitor formation is via dynamical interactions in the dense nucleus of the host. The progenitor, in this case, could be a compact object merger. These may form in dense nuclear clusters or originate in a gaseous disc around the supermassive black hole. Identifying, to the best of our knowledge, a first example of a dynamically produced GRB demonstrates the role that such bursts may have in probing dense environments and constraining dynamical fractions in gravitational wave populations.</p

    Extracellular vesicles and microRNAs are altered in response to exercise, insulin sensitivity and overweight

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    Extracellular vesicles induced by exercise have emerged as potential mediators of tissue crosstalk. Extracellular vesicles and their cargo miRNAs have been linked to dysglycemia and obesity in animal models, but their role in humans is unclear. Aim The aim of the study was to characterize the miRNA content in plasma extracellular vesicle isolates after acute and long-term exercise and to study associations between extracellular vesicle miRNAs, mRNA expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods Sedentary men with or without dysglycemia and overweight underwent an acute bicycle test and a 12-week exercise intervention with extensive metabolic phenotyping. Gene expression in m. vastus lateralis and subcutaneous adipose tissue was measured with RNA sequencing. Extracellular vesicles were purified from plasma with membrane affinity columns or size exclusion chromatography. Results Extracellular vesicle miRNA profiling revealed a transient increase in the number of miRNAs after acute exercise. We identified miRNAs, such as miR-652-3p, that were associated to insulin sensitivity and adiposity. By performing explorative association analyses, we identified two miRNAs, miR-32-5p and miR-339-3p, that were strongly correlated to an adipose tissue macrophage signature. Conclusion Numerous miRNAs in plasma extracellular vesicle isolates were increased by exercise, and several miRNAs correlated to insulin sensitivity and adiposity. Our findings warrant future studies to characterize exercise-induced extracellular vesicles and cargo miRNA to clarify where exercise-induced extracellular vesicles originate from, and to determine whether they influence metabolic health or exercise adaptation
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