1,720 research outputs found

    Injectable phase-separated tetra-armed poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel scaffold allows sustained release of growth factors to enhance the repair of critical bone defects

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    With the rising prevalence of bone-related injuries, it is crucial to improve treatments for fractures and defects. Tissue engineering offers a promising solution in the form of injectable hydrogel scaffolds that can sustain the release of growth factors like bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) for bone repair. Recently, we discovered that tetra-PEG hydrogels (Tetra gels) undergo gel-gel phase separation (GGPS) at low polymer content, resulting in hydrophobicity and tissue affinity. In this work, we examined the potential of a newer class of gel, the oligo-tetra-PEG gel (Oligo gel), as a growth factor-releasing scaffold. We investigated the extent of GGPS occurring in the two gels and assessed their ability to sustain BMP-2 release and osteogenic potential in a mouse calvarial defect model. The Oligo gel underwent a greater degree of GGPS than the Tetra gel, exhibiting higher turbidity, hydrophobicity, and pore formation. The Oligo gel demonstrated sustained protein or growth factor release over a 21-day period from protein release kinetics and osteogenic cell differentiation studies. Finally, BMP-2-loaded Oligo gels achieved complete regeneration of critical-sized calvarial defects within 28 days, significantly outperforming Tetra gels. The easy formulation, injectability, and capacity for sustained release makes the Oligo gel a promising candidate therapeutic biomaterial

    A virtual audit system for intensity-modulated radiation therapy credentialing in Japan Clinical Oncology Group clinical trials: A pilot study

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    PURPOSE The Medical Physics Working Group of the Radiation Therapy Study Group at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group is currently developing a virtual audit system for intensity-modulated radiation therapy dosimetry credentialing. The target dosimeters include films and array detectors, such as ArcCHECK (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, Florida, USA) and Delta4 (ScandiDos, Uppsala, Sweden). This pilot study investigated the feasibility of our virtual audit system using previously acquired data. METHODS We analyzed 46 films (32 and 14 in the axial and coronal planes, respectively) from 29 institutions. Global gamma analysis between measured and planned dose distributions used the following settings: 3%/3 mm criteria (the dose denominator was 2 Gy), 30% threshold dose, no scaling of the datasets, and 90% tolerance level. In addition, 21 datasets from nine institutions were obtained for array evaluation. Five institutions used ArcCHECK, while the others used Delta4. Global gamma analysis was performed with 3%/2 mm criteria (the dose denominator was the maximum calculated dose), 10% threshold dose, and 95% tolerance level. The film calibration and gamma analysis were conducted with in-house software developed using Python (version 3.9.2). RESULTS The means ± standard deviations of the gamma passing rates were 99.4 ± 1.5% (range, 92.8%-100%) and 99.2 ± 1.0% (range, 97.0%-100%) in the film and array evaluations, respectively. CONCLUSION This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of virtual audits. The proposed virtual audit system will contribute to more efficient, cheaper, and more rapid trial credentialing than on-site and postal audits; however, the limitations should be considered when operating our virtual audit system

    Tissue-Adhesive Hydrogel Spray System for Live Cell Immobilization on Biological Surfaces

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    Gelatin hydrogels are used as three-dimensional cell scaffolds and can be prepared using various methods. One widely accepted approach involves crosslinking gelatin amino groups with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modified with N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (PEG-NHS). This method enables the encapsulation of live cells within the hydrogels and also facilitates the adhesion of the hydrogel to biological tissues by crosslinking their surface amino groups. Consequently, these hydrogels are valuable tools for immobilizing cells that secrete beneficial substances in vivo. However, the application of gelatin hydrogels is limited due to the requirement for several minutes to solidify under conditions of neutral pH and polymer concentrations suitable for live cells. This limitation makes it impractical for use with biological tissues, which have complex shapes or inclined surfaces, restricting its application to semi-closed spaces. In this study, we propose a tissue-adhesive hydrogel that can be sprayed and immobilized with live cells on biological tissue surfaces. This hydrogel system combines two components: (1) gelatin/PEG-NHS hydrogels and (2) instantaneously solidifying PEG hydrogels. The sprayed hydrogel solidified within 5 s after dispensing while maintaining the adhesive properties of the PEG-NHS component. The resulting hydrogels exhibited protein permeability, and the viability of encapsulated human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) remained above 90% for at least 7 days. This developed hydrogel system represents a promising approach for immobilizing live cells on tissue surfaces with complex shapes

    MCM4 expression is associated with high-grade histology, tumor progression and poor prognosis in urothelial carcinoma

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    Abstract Background We previously reported Minichromosome maintenance 4 (MCM4) overexpression in gastric cancer. However, the clinicopathological significance of MCM4 in urothelial carcinoma (UC) has not been investigated. To clarify the clinicopathological significance of MCM4 in UC, we investigated MCM4 expression with immunohistochemistry (IHC). Methods We analyzed the expression and distribution of MCM4 in 124 upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) samples by IHC. Additionally, using 108 urine samples, we analyzed MCM4 Immunocytochemistry (ICC) expression in urine cytology. Results In normal urothelium, MCM4 expression was weak or absent. Meanwhile, the strong nuclear expression of MCM4 was observed in UTUC tissues, and it was detected in 77 (62%) of a total of 124 UTUC cases. MCM4-positive UTUC cases were associated with nodular/flat morphology, high grade, high T stage, and poor prognosis. Moreover, MCM4 expression was significantly higher in the invasive front than in the tumor surface. Similar results were also obtained in TCGA bladder cancer cohort. Additionally, MCM4 expression was associated with high expression of Ki-67, HER2, EGFR, and p53 in UTUC. Among representative cancer-related molecules, MCM4 had an independent predictive value for progression-free survival and high-grade UC. ICC for MCM4 was also performed on urine cytology slides and showed that the nuclear expression of MCM4 was more frequently found in UC cells than in non-neoplastic cells. The diagnostic accuracy of urine cytology was improved by combining MCM4 immunostaining with cytology. Conclusion These results suggest that MCM4 might be a useful predictive biomarker for high-grade histology, tumor progression and poor prognosis in UC. Moreover, ICC for MCM4 might be helpful for UC detection as additional markers in the cytomorphology-based diagnosis

    Androgen receptor binding sites enabling genetic prediction of mortality due to prostate cancer in cancer-free subjects

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    Abstract Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the second most common cancer worldwide in males. While strongly warranted, the prediction of mortality risk due to PrCa, especially before its development, is challenging. Here, we address this issue by maximizing the statistical power of genetic data with multi-ancestry meta-analysis and focusing on binding sites of the androgen receptor (AR), which has a critical role in PrCa. Taking advantage of large Japanese samples ever, a multi-ancestry meta-analysis comprising more than 300,000 subjects in total identifies 9 unreported loci including ZFHX3, a tumor suppressor gene, and successfully narrows down the statistically finemapped variants compared to European-only studies, and these variants strongly enrich in AR binding sites. A polygenic risk scores (PRS) analysis restricting to statistically finemapped variants in AR binding sites shows among cancer-free subjects, individuals with a PRS in the top 10% have a strongly higher risk of the future death of PrCa (HR: 5.57, P = 4.2 × 10−10). Our findings demonstrate the potential utility of leveraging large-scale genetic data and advanced analytical methods in predicting the mortality of PrCa

    National trends in the outcomes of subarachnoid haemorrhage and the prognostic influence of stroke centre capability in Japan: retrospective cohort study

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    Objectives To examine the national, 6-year trends in in-hospital clinical outcomes of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) who underwent clipping or coiling and the prognostic influence of temporal trends in the Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) capabilities on patient outcomes in Japan.Design Retrospective study.Setting Six hundred and thirty-one primary care institutions in Japan.Participants Forty-five thousand and eleven patients with SAH who were urgently hospitalised, identified using the J-ASPECT Diagnosis Procedure Combination database.Primary and secondary outcome measures Annual number of patients with SAH who remained untreated, or who received clipping or coiling, in-hospital mortality and poor functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale: 3–6) at discharge. Each CSC was assessed using a validated scoring system (CSC score: 1–25 points).Results In the overall cohort, in-hospital mortality decreased (year for trend, OR (95% CI): 0.97 (0.96 to 0.99)), while the proportion of poor functional outcomes remained unchanged (1.00 (0.98 to 1.02)). The proportion of patients who underwent clipping gradually decreased from 46.6% to 38.5%, while that of those who received coiling and those left untreated gradually increased from 16.9% to 22.6% and 35.4% to 38%, respectively. In-hospital mortality of coiled (0.94 (0.89 to 0.98)) and untreated (0.93 (0.90 to 0.96)) patients decreased, whereas that of clipped patients remained stable. CSC score improvement was associated with increased use of coiling (per 1-point increase, 1.14 (1.08 to 1.20)) but not with short-term patient outcomes regardless of treatment modality.Conclusions The 6-year trends indicated lower in-hospital mortality for patients with SAH (attributable to better outcomes), increased use of coiling and multidisciplinary care for untreated patients. Further increasing CSC capabilities may improve overall outcomes, mainly by increasing the use of coiling. Additional studies are necessary to determine the effect of confounders such as aneurysm complexity on outcomes of clipped patients in the modern endovascular era

    Tissue-Adhesive Hydrogel Spray System for Live Cell Immobilization on Biological Surfaces

    No full text
    Gelatin hydrogels are used as three-dimensional cell scaffolds and can be prepared using various methods. One widely accepted approach involves crosslinking gelatin amino groups with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modified with N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (PEG-NHS). This method enables the encapsulation of live cells within the hydrogels and also facilitates the adhesion of the hydrogel to biological tissues by crosslinking their surface amino groups. Consequently, these hydrogels are valuable tools for immobilizing cells that secrete beneficial substances in vivo. However, the application of gelatin hydrogels is limited due to the requirement for several minutes to solidify under conditions of neutral pH and polymer concentrations suitable for live cells. This limitation makes it impractical for use with biological tissues, which have complex shapes or inclined surfaces, restricting its application to semi-closed spaces. In this study, we propose a tissue-adhesive hydrogel that can be sprayed and immobilized with live cells on biological tissue surfaces. This hydrogel system combines two components: (1) gelatin/PEG-NHS hydrogels and (2) instantaneously solidifying PEG hydrogels. The sprayed hydrogel solidified within 5 s after dispensing while maintaining the adhesive properties of the PEG-NHS component. The resulting hydrogels exhibited protein permeability, and the viability of encapsulated human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) remained above 90% for at least 7 days. This developed hydrogel system represents a promising approach for immobilizing live cells on tissue surfaces with complex shapes

    Prediction of Cobb Angle Using Deep Learning Algorithm with Three-Dimensional Depth Sensor Considering the Influence of Garment in Idiopathic Scoliosis

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    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common pediatric spinal deformity. Early detection of deformity and timely intervention, such as brace treatment, can help inhibit progressive changes. A three-dimensional (3D) depth-sensor imaging system with a convolutional neural network was previously developed to predict the Cobb angle. The purpose of the present study was to (1) evaluate the performance of the deep learning algorithm (DLA) in predicting the Cobb angle and (2) assess the predictive ability depending on the presence or absence of clothing in a prospective analysis. We included 100 subjects with suspected AIS. The correlation coefficient between the actual and predicted Cobb angles was 0.87, and the mean absolute error and root mean square error were 4.7° and 6.0°, respectively, for Adam’s forward bending without underwear. There were no significant differences in the correlation coefficients between the groups with and without underwear in the forward-bending posture. The performance of the DLA with a 3D depth sensor was validated using an independent external validation dataset. Because the psychological burden of children and adolescents on naked body imaging is an unignorable problem, scoliosis examination with underwear is a valuable alternative in clinics or schools

    EMab-300 Detects Mouse Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Expressing Cancer Cell Lines in Flow Cytometry

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    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) overexpression or its mutation mediates the sustaining proliferative signaling, which is an important hallmark of cancer. Human EGFR-targeting monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy such as cetuximab has been approved for clinical use in patients with colorectal cancers and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. A reliable preclinical mouse model is essential to further develop the mAb therapy against EGFR. Therefore, sensitive mAbs against mouse EGFR (mEGFR) should be established. In this study, we developed a specific and sensitive mAb for mEGFR using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. The established anti-mEGFR mAb, EMab-300 (rat IgG1, kappa), reacted with mEGFR-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO/mEGFR) and endogenously mEGFR-expressed cell lines, including NMuMG (a mouse mammary gland epithelial cell) and Lewis lung carcinoma cells, using flow cytometry. The kinetic analysis using flow cytometry indicated that the KD of EMab-300 for CHO/mEGFR and NMuMG was 4.3 × 10−8 M and 1.9 × 10−8 M, respectively. These results indicated that EMab-300 applies to the detection of mEGFR using flow cytometry and may be useful to obtain the proof of concept in preclinical studies
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