454 research outputs found

    Additional file 1 of Intestinal metabolites predict treatment resistance of patients with depression and anxiety

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    Supplementary Material 1: Supplemental Figure 1. Comparison of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity between replicates and between different participants; Supplemental Figure 2. Comparison of normalized bacterial abundance among intestinal bacteria; Supplemental Figure 3. Prediction of treatment responders and non-responders based on the baseline HAM-A scores or the abundance of Odoribacter; Supplemental Figure 4. Changes in the levels of the identified metabolites over time; Supplemental Figure 5. Fecal levels of short-chain fatty acids are not associated with the treatment responses of patients with depression and anxiet

    Video_1_Embodied bidirectional simulation of a spiking cortico-basal ganglia-cerebellar-thalamic brain model and a mouse musculoskeletal body model distributed across computers including the supercomputer Fugaku.MP4

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    Embodied simulation with a digital brain model and a realistic musculoskeletal body model provides a means to understand animal behavior and behavioral change. Such simulation can be too large and complex to conduct on a single computer, and so distributed simulation across multiple computers over the Internet is necessary. In this study, we report our joint effort on developing a spiking brain model and a mouse body model, connecting over the Internet, and conducting bidirectional simulation while synchronizing them. Specifically, the brain model consisted of multiple regions including secondary motor cortex, primary motor and somatosensory cortices, basal ganglia, cerebellum and thalamus, whereas the mouse body model, provided by the Neurorobotics Platform of the Human Brain Project, had a movable forelimb with three joints and six antagonistic muscles to act in a virtual environment. Those were simulated in a distributed manner across multiple computers including the supercomputer Fugaku, which is the flagship supercomputer in Japan, while communicating via Robot Operating System (ROS). To incorporate models written in C/C++ in the distributed simulation, we developed a C++ version of the rosbridge library from scratch, which has been released under an open source license. These results provide necessary tools for distributed embodied simulation, and demonstrate its possibility and usefulness toward understanding animal behavior and behavioral change.</p

    Image_2_Embodied bidirectional simulation of a spiking cortico-basal ganglia-cerebellar-thalamic brain model and a mouse musculoskeletal body model distributed across computers including the supercomputer Fugaku.JPEG

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    Embodied simulation with a digital brain model and a realistic musculoskeletal body model provides a means to understand animal behavior and behavioral change. Such simulation can be too large and complex to conduct on a single computer, and so distributed simulation across multiple computers over the Internet is necessary. In this study, we report our joint effort on developing a spiking brain model and a mouse body model, connecting over the Internet, and conducting bidirectional simulation while synchronizing them. Specifically, the brain model consisted of multiple regions including secondary motor cortex, primary motor and somatosensory cortices, basal ganglia, cerebellum and thalamus, whereas the mouse body model, provided by the Neurorobotics Platform of the Human Brain Project, had a movable forelimb with three joints and six antagonistic muscles to act in a virtual environment. Those were simulated in a distributed manner across multiple computers including the supercomputer Fugaku, which is the flagship supercomputer in Japan, while communicating via Robot Operating System (ROS). To incorporate models written in C/C++ in the distributed simulation, we developed a C++ version of the rosbridge library from scratch, which has been released under an open source license. These results provide necessary tools for distributed embodied simulation, and demonstrate its possibility and usefulness toward understanding animal behavior and behavioral change.</p

    Induction of liver-resident memory T cells and protection at liver-stage malaria by mRNA-containing lipid nanoparticles

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    Recent studies have suggested that CD8+ liver-resident memory T (TRM) cells are crucial in the protection against liver-stage malaria. We used liver-directed mRNA-containing lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNPs) to induce liver TRM cells in a murine model. Single-dose intravenous injections of ovalbumin mRNA-LNPs effectively induced antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner in the liver on day 7. TRM cells (CD8+ CD44hi CD62Llo CD69+ KLRG1-) were induced 5 weeks after immunization. To examine the protective efficacy, mice were intramuscularly immunized with two doses of circumsporozoite protein mRNA-LNPs at 3-week intervals and challenged with sporozoites of Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Sterile immunity was observed in some of the mice, and the other mice showed a delay in blood-stage development when compared with the control mice. mRNA-LNPs therefore induce memory CD8+ T cells that can protect against sporozoites during liver-stage malaria and may provide a basis for vaccines against the disease

    Deep ocean water alters the cholesterol and mineral metabolism of squid Todarodes pacificus and suppresses its weight loss

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    Abstract This study is the first to demonstrate that deep ocean water (DOW) has physiological significant effects on squid. After 36 h of rearing squids, those reared with DOW had significantly higher total and free cholesterol levels and lower alanine transaminase activity in hemolymph as compared with those reared with surface sea water (SSW). SSW rearing also resulted in 6.95% weight loss, while DOW rearing caused only 2.5% weight loss, which might be due to liver metabolism suppression. Furthermore, both monovalent (sodium, chloride, and potassium ions) and divalent (calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and magnesium ions) ions in hemolymph were elevated when reared with DOW compared to those when reared with SSW. A study of genes expressed in the brain revealed that five genes were specifically remarked in DOW rearing. Most altered genes were neuropeptides, including those from vasopressin superfamily. These neuropeptides are involved in cholesterol and/or mineral metabolisms and physiological significant effects on squid. This study is the first report the effects of DOW on cholesterol and mineral metabolism of squid and will contribute to squid aquaculture using DOW

    Production of marmoset eggs and embryos from xenotransplanted ovary tissues

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    Abstract The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has attracted attention as a valuable primate model for the analysis of human diseases. Despite the potential for primate genetic modification, however, its widespread lab usage has been limited due to the requirement for a large number of eggs. To make up for traditional oocyte retrieval methods such as hormone administration and surgical techniques, we carried out an alternative approach by utilizing ovarian tissue from deceased marmosets that had been disposed of. This ovarian tissue contains oocytes and can be used as a valuable source of follicles and oocytes. In this approach, the ovarian tissue sections were transplanted under the renal capsules of immunodeficient mice first. Subsequent steps consist of development of follicles by hormone administrations, induction of oocyte maturation and fertilization, and culture of the embryo. This method was first established with rat ovaries, then applied to marmoset ovaries, ultimately resulting in the successful acquisition of the late-stage marmoset embryos. This approach has the potential to contribute to advancements in genetic modification research and disease modeling through the use of primate models, promoting biotechnology with non-human primates and the 3Rs principle in animal experimentation

    iPSC-derived type IV collagen α5-expressing kidney organoids model Alport syndrome

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    ヒトiPS細胞から作製した腎オルガノイドを用いたアルポート症候群病態モデルの開発. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2023-09-28.iPSC-derived kidney organoids to model a lifelong renal disease. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2023-10/17.Alport syndrome (AS) is a hereditary glomerulonephritis caused by COL4A3, COL4A4 or COL4A5 gene mutations and characterized by abnormalities of glomerular basement membranes (GBMs). Due to a lack of curative treatments, the condition proceeds to end-stage renal disease even in adolescents. Hampering drug discovery is the absence of effective in vitro methods for testing the restoration of normal GBMs. Here, we aimed to develop kidney organoid models from AS patient iPSCs for this purpose. We established iPSC-derived collagen α5(IV)-expressing kidney organoids and confirmed that kidney organoids from COL4A5 mutation-corrected iPSCs restore collagen α5(IV) protein expression. Importantly, our model recapitulates the differences in collagen composition between iPSC-derived kidney organoids from mild and severe AS cases. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a chemical chaperone, 4-phenyl butyric acid, has the potential to correct GBM abnormalities in kidney organoids showing mild AS phenotypes. This iPSC-derived kidney organoid model will contribute to drug discovery for AS
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