824 research outputs found

    Common Interest Development in Canada: Private Communities and the Future of Canadian Cities

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    Paper: 17 pp., Digital file.This paper examines the phenomenon of Common Interest Developments (CIDs), more commonly known as “gated communities”, within the Canadian context. Comparing Canadian CIDs to their US counterparts. The author notes that Canadian developments are more likely to target seniors, tend to have fewer security features and are usually developed on a smaller scale. The author cautions that the proliferation of CIDs may have significant implications for local politics and Canadian cities. CID residents in the US are gaining political clout through well-organized homeowner associations, which constitute an effective lobbying force. Such associations are increasingly advocating measures such as tax rebates for their constituency, arguing for an end to what they call “double taxation” since CID residents pay both municipal taxes and monthly fees to the CID. The paper argues that CIDs are exclusionary by nature, fostering homogeneity in age, race, and income group, and that the proliferation of such development will lead to greater segregation in Canadian cities.Institute of Urban Studie

    Das Genus Levantina Kob.

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    Mazedonische Gastropoden, gesammelt von Herrn Prof. Dr. F. Doflein

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    Optimization Based Self-localization for IoT Wireless Sensor Networks

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    In this paper we propose an embedded optimization framework for the simultaneous self-localization of all sensors in wireless sensor networks making use of range measurements from ultra-wideband (UWB) signals. Low-power UWB radios, which provide time-of-arrival measurements with decimeter accuracy over large distances, have been increasingly envisioned for realtime localization of IoT devices in GPS-denied environments and large sensor networks. In this work, we therefore explore different non-linear least-squares optimization problems to formulate the localization task based on UWB range measurements. We solve the resulting optimization problems directly using non-linear-programming algorithms that guarantee convergence to locally optimal solutions. This optimization framework allows the consistent comparison of different optimization methods for sensor localization. We propose and demonstrate the best optimization approach for the self-localization of sensors equipped with off-the-shelf microcontrollers using state-of-the-art code generation techniques for the plug-and-play deployment of the optimal localization algorithm. Numerical results indicate that the proposed approach improves localization accuracy and decreases computation times relative to existing iterative methods

    Scattering of non-uniform incident fields by long cylinders

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    Copyright University of BremenWe investigate experimentally far-field scattering from cylinders with illumination non-uniform along the axis of the cylinder. Scattered intensity as a function of angle in two orthogonal directions is examined. Variation along the scattering angle is found to be little affected by the illumination profile. However, variation in the transverse direction follows closely the Fourier transform of the illumination pattern and reproduces the angular distribution of the incident wave. These finding apply to circular as well as hexagonal cross-section cylinders

    Cloud chamber laboratory investigations into scattering properties of hollow ice particles

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    Copyright 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC-BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Date of Acceptance: 16/02/2015Measurements are presented of the phase function, P11, and asymmetry parameter, g, of five ice clouds created in a laboratory cloud chamber. At −7 °C, two clouds were created: one comprised entirely of solid columns, and one comprised entirely of hollow columns. Similarly at −15 °C, two clouds were created: one consisting of solid plates and one consisting of hollow plates. At −30 °C, only hollow particles could be created within the constraints of the experiment. The resulting cloud at −30 °C contained short hollow columns and thick hollow plates. During the course of each experiment, the cloud properties were monitored using a Cloud Particle Imager (CPI). In addition to this, ice crystal replicas were created using formvar resin. By examining the replicas under an optical microscope, two different internal structures were identified. The internal and external facets were measured and used to create geometric particle models with realistic internal structures. Theoretical results were calculated using both Ray Tracing (RT) and Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF). Experimental and theoretical results are compared to assess the impact of internal structure on P11 and g and the applicability of RT and RTDF for hollow columns.Peer reviewe

    Delay in Delivery of Cadaver to Next of Kin

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    The general rule is that mental suffering alone, caused by mere negligence, is non-compensable. While a majority of courts seem to hold that damages may be awarded when physical injuries result from mental anguish, even though no impact (contact) is involved, in most states the requirement of physical injury appears steadfast. One notable exception to this rule, however, can sometimes be found in the law relating to cadavers. Briefly stated, it holds that mental anguish suffered by the next of kin, resulting from interference with the body of the deceased, is sufficient basis for compensation, irrespective of contemporaneous physical injury. Our purpose then is to discuss interference with possession of a cadaver, delay in delivery, and the accompanying mental distress of the next of kin

    Delay in Delivery of Cadaver to Next of Kin

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    The general rule is that mental suffering alone, caused by mere negligence, is non-compensable. While a majority of courts seem to hold that damages may be awarded when physical injuries result from mental anguish, even though no impact (contact) is involved, in most states the requirement of physical injury appears steadfast. One notable exception to this rule, however, can sometimes be found in the law relating to cadavers. Briefly stated, it holds that mental anguish suffered by the next of kin, resulting from interference with the body of the deceased, is sufficient basis for compensation, irrespective of contemporaneous physical injury. Our purpose then is to discuss interference with possession of a cadaver, delay in delivery, and the accompanying mental distress of the next of kin

    A light scattering instrument for investigating cloud ice microcrystal morphology

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    We describe an optical scattering instrument designed to assess the shapes and sizes of microscopic atmospheric cloud particles, especially the smallest ice crystals that can profoundly affect cloud processes and radiative properties yet cannot be seen clearly using in situ cloud particle imaging probes. The new instrument captures high-resolution spatial light scattering patterns from individual particles down to ~1 μm in size passing through a laser beam. Its significance lies in the ability of these patterns to provide morphological data for particle sizes well below the optical resolution limits of current probes

    Modelling light scattering by absorbing smooth and slightly rough facetted particles

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    A method for approximating light scattering properties of strongly absorbing facetted particles which are large compared to the wavelength is presented. It consists in adding the approximated external diffraction and reflection far fields and is demonstrated for a smooth hexagonal prism. This computationally fast method is extended towards prisms with slightly rough surfaces by introducing a surface scaling factor in order to account for edge effects on subfacets forming the rough surface. These effects become more pronounced with decreasing subfacet dimension to wavelength ratio. Azimuthally resolved light scattering patterns, phase functions and degree of linear polarisation obtained by this method and by the Discrete Dipole Approximation are compared for hexagonal prisms with smooth and slightly rough surfaces, respectively.Peer reviewedSubmitted Versio
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