2,291 research outputs found

    Effect of Corporate Scientists on Firms’ Innovation Activity: a Literature Review

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    45 p.This study reviews the literature on the effect of corporate scientists on firms’ innovation activities. Traditionally, the scientist’s role in a firm is linked to the processes of generation and absorption of scientific knowledge. However, a growing number of studies over the years show that the scientist’s role in firm innovation processes is more extensive and that they contribute to the development of successful new products, processes and services. However, there are no comprehensive reviews of this literature. This paper fills the gap by providing a systematic review of the empirical literature on the role of the corporate scientists in the innovation process by investigating: (1) theoretical approaches used to evaluate the impact of scientists, (2) the importance for the firm’s innovation activity of scientists’ heterogeneity, (3) those firm innovation activities over which scientists exhibit more influence, (4) the variables moderating the effect of scientists and (5) research implications for managers.S

    UNA IDEA DE MUJER EN CIORAN

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    Este artículo, de carácter interpretativo, lleva a cabo una reflexión acerca  de la idea y el puesto de la mujer en la obra de Cioran desde una perspectiva  no sólo femenina sino desde la situación cultural particular de su autora. Partiendo de varios de los textos del escritor rumano-francés, se analiza el tema mujer en dos ámbitos bien determinados por Cioran: primero, el de la prostitución y su parentesco con la filosofía y, segundo, el del ámbito de los santos.

    O analiza a mediului universitar romanesc. Cadru legislativ actual si tinte viitoare

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    In this article I am trying to analyze the relation between the dynamics present the academic environment and the institutional framework. I will focus particularly on the process of adapting the Romanian legislation to the European one and on the inherent instability caused by decades of continuous reforms without a specific and clear set of targets. Therefore, I plan to answer the following question: what is the impact of the constantly changing institutional frame on the academic community and what further developments are to be expected in the future

    A Woman Idea in Cioran

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    Este artículo, de carácter interpretativo, lleva a cabo una reflexión acerca de la idea y el puesto de la mujer en la obra de Cioran desde una perspectiva no sólo femenina sino desde la situación cultural particular de su autora. Partiendo de varios de los textos del escritor rumano-francés, se analiza el tema mujer en dos ámbitos bien determinados por Cioran: primero, el de la prostitución y su parentesco con la filosofía y, segundo, el del ámbito de los santos.This interpretative article, performs a reflection about the idea and the position of women in the work of Cioran not only from a female perspective but from the particular cultural situation of the author of this paper. Starting from several texts from the Romanian-French writer, women’s issues is analyzed into two areas determined by Cioran: the first-one, prostitution and its relationship to philosophy and, the secondone from their reflexions about saint

    Efecto de la competencia en la escogencia de estándares educativos

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    En la literatura económica no se ha estudiado como la competencia entre las instituciones educativas afecta específicamente la escogencia de estándares educativos y el valor de matrícula. Usando un modelo teórico analizo como la competencia entre las instituciones educativas afectan la escogencia de estándares académicos, comparando la solución en competencia con la solución eficiente y la solución de monopolio. Los individuos son heterogéneos y se diferencian en su habilidad, las instituciones educativas compiten estableciendo en una primera etapa el estándar educativo, y en una segunda etapa el valor de matrícula. Una vez definidos los estándares y los valores de matrícula, estos son información pública, permitiendo a los individuos escoger entre ingresar o no a una institución educativa o a que institución educativa ingresar de acuerdo a la habilidad innata y al costo asociado al esfuerzo. En los resultados se muestra que el bienestar social aumenta cuando en la economía existe más de una institución educativa con estándares diferentes, y la solución de mercado, en monopolio o en competencia, obliga a los estudiantes a ejercer un mayor esfuerzo para alcanzar el título. Independiente a la relación de costos, el valor de matrícula es siempre mayor para la institución con estándar educativo más alto, y mayor en la solución de mercado. Cuando el costo unitario de la institución con estándar más alto es mayor o igual al costo de la institución con menor estándar, los estándares educativos escogidos por el planificador son mayores y el esfuerzo requerido por los individuos es menor respecto a la solución de mercado.The literature has not studied how competence between schools affect grading standards and tuition fees. I use a theoretical model to analyze grading standards and tuition fees when schools compete. Also I compare this solution to the monopoly solution and the efficient solution. This model has 2 main assumptions: 1. Exists heterogeneity across individuals, it means differences in innate ability; and 2. Schools compete simultaneously in a two-stage model. First, by selecting grading standards and later, selecting tuition fees to maximize their profits. Considering this, social welfare increases with competence when schools compete and each of them has a different grading standards. In addition, students do lower effort under the efficient solution model. According to the competence model, tuition fees are higher when grading standard is higher, even when lower grading standard school are costly

    The distribution of R&D subsidies and its effect on the final outcome of innovation policy

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    Se evalúa el efecto de la política española de subsidios a la innovación sobre la intensidad en I+D de las empresas, teniendo en cuenta, subsidios procedentes de la Administración Central, de las Comunidades Autonómicas y de otros organismos. La metodología empleada permite llegar a una solución próxima a la eliminación de dos grandes problemas metodológicos en la tarea de evaluación de la política: la no estimación del estado contafactual (lo que hubiese ocurrido en ausencia de políticas) y el problema de la endogeneidad derivado del proceso de distribución de las ayudas. Este proceso no es aleatorio y sigue criterios de selección que podrían afectar la efectividad de los programas. Nosotros utilizamos un enfoque no paramétrico denominado Propensity Score Matching con el fin de superar estos problemas. Los resultados rechazan un efecto de crowding out de los fondos públicos sobre los privados

    Distribution and effect of R&D subsidies: A comparative analysis according to firm size

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    This study considers the relationship between the size of the firm and innovation policy. The study includes a joint analysis of distribution and the effect of R&D subsidies on inputs and outputs of the innovation process of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and large firms. Although size has a significant, positive influence on firms’ propensity to obtain R&D subsidies, large firms do not always show the strongest effects and in some cases such an effect is not significant. The study likewise concludes that subsidies are effective in increasing the inputs to the innovation process of SMEs and the outputs of large firms. One must consider these differences when evaluating and designing future innovation policies.Peer Reviewe

    Effects of user's cooperation and location on innovation activity of firms: an input-output approach

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    The present study analyses the profile of firms cooperating with users and estimates the effect of this cooperation on firms’ innovation activities. This issue is particular novel and important as users provide information that will be very useful for generating new products and making the innovation process more efficient. The findings confirm that cooperation with users is a tool for progress and development as it has a positive influence on both input and output of firms’ innovation process. This paper makes three important contributions to the literature. First, we analyse the effect of cooperation with users on how firms distribute their R&D expenditures (basic research, applied research and technological development) in order to make clear how this tool can affect the different strategies for generating knowledge. Second, we also study the impact of this kind of cooperation on the degree of novelty of new products, with the aim of explaining how it affects the productivity of R&D activities. Third, to estimate these effects, the study analyses these relationships and explore the role of proximity in the cooperation with users taking into account the location of this agent (domestic versus international users). Results confirm that cooperation with users increases investments in activities that generate knowledge with a specific practical objective and which are near to firms’ technological domain (applied research and technological development). Independently of user’s location, firms increase their investment in technological development to act quickly in the market and to obtain profits. The study also concludes that cooperation with users has positive effects on innovation outputs and its degree of novelty (radical versus incremental innovations). Nonetheless, these effects are different according to user’s location. Cooperation with domestic users stimulates the sales of radical innovations and cooperation with international users increase sales of incremental innovations

    The Regional Dimension of the Distribution and Effects of Public Incentives Directed towards Innovation of Firms

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    This study is based on the recent vision that the innovative activity is a territorial phenomenon which is enhanced by the cooperation between actors and local infrastructures. The aim of this study is to determine whether the specific economic and institutional conditions of a region have an influence on the results of a national policy intended to support entrepreneurial innovation. The analysis is directed towards comparing the effect of this policy between firms located in Madrid, Catalonia and the Basque country, regions which concentrate around 70% of Spain’s innovative activity. The type of analysis undertaken allows to approach a situation which lies close to solving two of the most important methodological problems which arise when the evaluation of innovation policies is put into practice: the lack of control over the aid distribution process, and the non-estimation of a counterfactual state (the scenario without public support). The results of this study allow to conclude that the region plays an important differentiating role in the final result of the national innovation policy. Therefore, this study recommends to include the localization of the firm in future evaluations

    Capacidad de innovación y configuración de recursos organizativos

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    El propósito de este artículo es contribuir a un mejor entendimiento de los recursos involucrados en el proceso de innovación continua en las empresas. En este trabajo se identifican un conjunto de buenas prácticas, las cuales integradas, forman actividades innovadoras que ayudan a las organizaciones a adquirir la capacidad para innovar continuamente por medio de los proyectos de desarrollo de nuevos productos. Además, en un esfuerzo por comprender como está conformada la capacidad de innovación, en esta investigación se presenta un modelo conceptual basado en la perspectiva de las capacidades dinámicas, el cual muestra esta capacidad como el resultado de cuatro procesos: creación de conocimiento, absorción de conocimiento, integración de conocimiento y reconfiguración de conocimiento. Estos procesos están soportados por cuatro tipos de recursos: capital humano, liderazgo, estructuras y sistemas y la cultura organizativa. Aplicando este modelo las organizaciones pueden identificar y estructurar las acciones organizativas más importantes en el proceso de innovación continua. Finalmente, el desarrollo del modelo, así como la identificación de las buenas prácticas, es realizada por medio de un estudio de casos exploratorio, el cual es aplicado a dos organizaciones de base tecnológica del sector audiovisual.The main purpose of this article is to contribute to a better understanding of the organizational sources pertaining to continuous innovation. This work identifies a set of best practices, which once integrated, create the innovative activities that help organizations to acquire a continuous innovation capability by means of the development of new products. Furthermore, in an effort to understand how the innovation capacity is created, based on the dynamic capability theory, a conceptual model is presented in this study. This model shows that the innovation capability is the result of four processes: knowledge creation, knowledge absorption, knowledge integration, and knowledge reconfiguration. These processes are leveraged by four kinds of resources: human capital, structures and systems, leadership, and company culture. Companies applying this model can identify and restructure the most important organizational actions in order to achieve a continuous innovation process. Finally, identification of best practices and model development are carried out by means of an exploratory case study, which is applied to two technological based organizations of the audiovisual sector.Peer Reviewe
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