320 research outputs found

    The Long-term Spectral Changes of Eta Carinae: Are they Caused by a Dissipating Occulter as Indicated by cmfgen Models?

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    Eta Carinae ( η Car) exhibits a unique set of P Cygni profiles with both broad and narrow components. Over many decades, the spectrum has changed—there has been an increase in observed continuum fluxes and a decrease in Fe ii and H i emission-line equivalent widths. The spectrum is evolving toward that of a P Cygni star such as P Cygni itself and HDE 316285. The spectral evolution has been attributed to intrinsic variations such as a decrease in the mass-loss rate of the primary star or differential evolution in a latitudinal-dependent stellar wind. However, intrinsic wind changes conflict with three observational results: the steady long-term bolometric luminosity; the repeating X-ray light curve over the binary period; and the constancy of the dust-scattered spectrum from the Homunculus. We extend previous work that showed a secular strengthening of P Cygni absorptions by adding more orbital cycles to overcome temporary instabilities and by examining more atomic transitions. cmfgen modeling of the primary wind shows that a time-decreasing mass-loss rate is not the best explanation for the observations. However, models with a small dissipating absorber in our line of sight can explain both the increase in brightness and changes in the emission and P Cygni absorption profiles. If the spectral evolution is caused by the dissipating circumstellar medium, and not by intrinsic changes in the binary, the dynamical timescale to recover from the Great Eruption is much less than a century, different from previous suggestions

    Anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in adult men and women with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a substantive and methodological overview

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    Knowledge on psychiatric comorbidity in adult ADHD is essential for prevention, detection, and treatment of these conditions. This review (1) focuses on large studies (n &gt; 10,000; surveys, claims data, population registries) to identify (a) overall, (b) sex- and (c) age-specific patterns of comorbidity of anxiety disorders (ADs), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) in adults with ADHD relative to adults without ADHD; and (2) describes methodological challenges relating to establishing comorbidity in ADHD in adults as well as priorities for future research. Meta-analyses (ADHD: n = 550,748; no ADHD n = 14,546,814) yielded pooled odds ratios of 5.0(CI:3.29–7.46) for ADs, 4.5(CI:2.44–8.34) for MDD, 8.7(CI:5.47–13.89) for BD and 4.6(CI:2.72–7.80) for SUDs, indicating strong differences in adults with compared to adults without ADHD. Moderation by sex was not found: high comorbidity held for both men and women with sex-specific patterns as in the general population: higher prevalences of ADs, MDD and BD in women and a higher prevalence of SUDs in men. Insufficient data on different phases of the adult lifespan prevented conclusions on developmental changes in comorbidity. We discuss methodological challenges, knowledge gaps, and future research priorities.</p

    Breast cancer risks associated with missense variants in breast cancer susceptibility genes

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    10.1186/s13073-022-01052-8GENOME MEDICINE14

    Aggregation tests identify new gene associations with breast cancer in populations with diverse ancestry

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    Low-frequency variants play an important role in breast cancer (BC) susceptibility. Gene-based methods can increase power by combining multiple variants in the same gene and help identify target genes. We evaluated the potential of gene-based aggregation in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium cohorts including 83,471 cases and 59,199 controls. Low-frequency variants were aggregated for individual genes' coding and regulatory regions. Association results in European ancestry samples were compared to single-marker association results in the same cohort. Gene-based associations were also combined in meta-analysis across individuals with European, Asian, African, and Latin American and Hispanic ancestry. In European ancestry samples, 14 genes were significantly associated (q < 0.05) with BC. Of those, two genes, FMNL3 (P = 6.11 × 10 ) and AC058822.1 (P = 1.47 × 10 ), represent new associations. High FMNL3 expression has previously been linked to poor prognosis in several other cancers. Meta-analysis of samples with diverse ancestry discovered further associations including established candidate genes ESR1 and CBLB. Furthermore, literature review and database query found further support for a biologically plausible link with cancer for genes CBLB, FMNL3, FGFR2, LSP1, MAP3K1, and SRGAP2C. Using extended gene-based aggregation tests including coding and regulatory variation, we report identification of plausible target genes for previously identified single-marker associations with BC as well as the discovery of novel genes implicated in BC development. Including multi ancestral cohorts in this study enabled the identification of otherwise missed disease associations as ESR1 (P = 1.31 × 10 ), demonstrating the importance of diversifying study cohorts. [Abstract copyright: © 2023. The Author(s).

    Eta Carinae:The Dissipating Occulter Is an Extended Structure

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    Previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) longslit observations of Eta Carinae (η Car) identified numerous absorption features in both the stellar spectrum, and in the adjacent nebular spectra, along our line of sight (LOS). The absorption features became temporarily stronger when the ionizing far-ultraviolet radiation field was reduced by the periastron passage of the secondary star. Subsequently, dissipation of a dusty structure in our LOS has led to a long-term increase in the apparent brightness of η Car, an increase in the ionizing ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and the disappearance of absorption from multiple velocity-separated shells extending across the foreground Homunculus lobe. We use HST/STIS spectro-images, coupled with published infrared and radio observations, to locate this intervening dusty structure. The velocity and spatial information indicate the occulter is ≈1000 au in front of η Car. The Homunculus is a transient structure composed of dusty, partially ionized ejecta that eventually will disappear due to the relentless rain of ionizing radiation and wind from the current binary system along with dissipation and mixing with the interstellar medium. This evolving complex continues to provide an astrophysical laboratory that changes on human timescales

    Association between relative age at school and persistence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in prospective studies: an individual participant data meta-analysis

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    Background The youngest children in a school class are more likely than the oldest to be diagnosed with ADHD, but this relative age effect is less frequent in older than in younger school-grade children. However, no study has explored the association between relative age and the persistence of ADHD diagnosis at older ages. We aimed to quantify the association between relative age and persistence of ADHD at older ages. Methods For this meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PubPsych up to April 1, 2022, with terms related to “cohort” and “ADHD” with no date, publication type, or language restrictions. We gathered individual participant data from prospective cohorts that included at least ten children identified with ADHD before age 10 years. ADHD was defined by either a clinical diagnosis or symptoms exceeding clinical cutoffs. Relative age was recorded as the month of birth in relation to the school-entry cutoff date. Study authors were invited to share raw data or to apply a script to analyse data locally and generate anonymised results. Our outcome was ADHD status at a diagnostic reassessment, conducted at least 4 years after the initial assessment and after age 10 years. No information on sex, gender, or ethnicity was collected. We did a two-stage random-effects individual participant data meta-analysis to assess the association of relative age with persistence of ADHD at follow-up. This study was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020212650. Findings Of 33 119 studies generated by our search, we identified 130 eligible unique studies and were able to gather individual participant data from 57 prospective studies following up 6504 children with ADHD. After exclusion of 16 studies in regions with a flexible school entry system that did not allow confident linkage of birthdate to relative age, the primary analysis included 41 studies in 15 countries following up 4708 children for a period of 4 to 33 years. We found that younger relative age was not statistically significantly associated with ADHD persistence at follow-up (odds ratio 1·02, 95% CI 0·99–1·06; p=0·19). We observed statistically significant heterogeneity in our model (Q=75·82, p=0·0011, I2=45%). Participant-level sensitivity analyses showed similar results in cohorts with a robust relative age effect at baseline and when restricting to cohorts involving children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD or with a follow-up duration of more than 10 years. Interpretation The diagnosis of ADHD in younger children in a class is no more likely to be disconfirmed over time than that of older children in the class. One interpretation is that the relative age effect decreases the likelihood of children of older relative age receiving a diagnosis of ADHD, and another is that assigning a diagnostic label of ADHD leads to unexplored carryover effects of the initial diagnosis that persist over time. Future studies should be conducted to explore these interpretations further

    Association of Country Income Level With the Characteristics and Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients Hospitalized With Acute Kidney Injury and COVID-19

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    Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been identified as one of the most common and significant problems in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. However, studies examining the relationship between COVID-19 and AKI in low- and low-middle income countries (LLMIC) are lacking. Given that AKI is known to carry a higher mortality rate in these countries, it is important to understand differences in this population. Methods: This prospective, observational study examines the AKI incidence and characteristics of 32,210 patients with COVID-19 from 49 countries across all income levels who were admitted to an intensive care unit during their hospital stay. Results: Among patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit, AKI incidence was highest in patients in LLMIC, followed by patients in upper-middle income countries (UMIC) and high-income countries (HIC) (53%, 38%, and 30%, respectively), whereas dialysis rates were lowest among patients with AKI from LLMIC and highest among those from HIC (27% vs. 45%). Patients with AKI in LLMIC had the largest proportion of community-acquired AKI (CA-AKI) and highest rate of in-hospital death (79% vs. 54% in HIC and 66% in UMIC). The association between AKI, being from LLMIC and in-hospital death persisted even after adjusting for disease severity. Conclusions: AKI is a particularly devastating complication of COVID-19 among patients from poorer nations where the gaps in accessibility and quality of healthcare delivery have a major impact on patient outcomes

    Do Poor Diet and Lifestyle Behaviors Modify the Genetic Susceptibility to Impulsivity in the General Population?

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    The present study investigated whether an unhealthy diet and other lifestyle behaviors may modify the genetic susceptibility to impulsivity. A total of 33,047 participants (mean age = 42.1 years, 59.8% females) from the Dutch Lifelines cohort were included. Each diet index and other lifestyle behaviors were tested for their interactions on the effect on the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) polygenic risk score (PRS) on impulsivity using a linear regression model with adjustment for covariates. The ADHD PRS was significantly associated with impulsivity (B = 0.03 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.04); p = 2.61 × 10−9). A poorer diet, a higher intake of energy, and a higher intake of fat were all associated with higher impulsivity, and a high intake of energy amplified the effect of ADHD PRS on impulsivity (e.g., for the interaction term of ADHD PRS and highest tertile on intake of energy, B = 0.038 (95% CI: 0.014, 0.062); p = 0.002. The other lifestyle factors, namely short and long sleep duration, current and past smoking, higher alcohol intake, and more time spent on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were associated with higher impulsivity, but no interaction effect was observed. In conclusion, we found that a high intake of energy exacerbated the genetic susceptibility to impulsivity. Our study helps to improve our understanding of the role of diet and genetic factors on impulsivity

    Psychiatric comorbidities in women with cardiometabolic conditions with and without ADHD : a population-based study

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    © 2023. The Author(s).BACKGROUND: Leveraging a large nationwide study of Icelandic women, we aimed to narrow the evidence gap around female attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cardiometabolic comorbidities by determining the prevalence of obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases among women with ADHD and examine the association between cardiometabolic conditions and co-occurring ADHD with anxiety and mood disorders, alcoholism/substance use disorder (SUD), self-harm, and suicide attempts. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the nationwide, all-female, population-based SAGA Cohort Study (n = 26,668). To ascertain diagnoses and symptoms, we used self-reported history of ADHD diagnoses, selected cardiometabolic conditions and psychiatric disorders, and measured current depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms through appropriate questionnaires (PHQ-9, GAD-7, and PCL-5). We calculated age-adjusted prevalences of cardiometabolic conditions by women's ADHD status and estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using modified Poisson regression models. Similarly, we assessed the association of cardiometabolic conditions and co-occurring ADHD with current psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders, using adjusted PRs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: We identified 2299 (8.6%) women with a history of ADHD diagnosis. The age-adjusted prevalence of having at least one cardiometabolic condition was higher among women with ADHD (49.5%) than those without (41.7%), (PR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.14-1.25), with higher prevalence of all measured cardiometabolic conditions (myocardial infarctions (PR = 2.53, 95% CI 1.83--3.49), type 2 diabetes (PR = 2.08, 95% CI 1.66-2.61), hypertension (PR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.12-1.34), and obesity (PR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11-1.25)). Women with cardiometabolic conditions and co-occurring ADHD had, compared with those without ADHD, substantially increased prevalence of (a) all measured mood and anxiety disorders, e.g., depression (PR = 2.38, 95% CI 2.19-2.58), bipolar disorder (PR = 4.81, 95% CI 3.65-6.35), posttraumatic stress disorder (PR = 2.78, 95% CI 2.52-3.07), social phobia (PR = 2.96, 95% CI 2.64-3.32); (b) moderate/severe depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms with PR = 1.76 (95% CI 1.67-1.85), PR = 1.97 (95% CI 1.82-2.12), and PR = 2.01 (95% CI 1.88-2.15), respectively; (c) alcoholism/SUD, PR = 4.79 (95% CI 3.90-5.89); and (d) self-harm, PR = 1.47 (95% CI 1.29-1.67) and suicide attempts, PR = 2.37 (95% CI 2.05-2.73). CONCLUSIONS: ADHD is overrepresented among women with cardiometabolic conditions and contributes substantially to other psychiatric comorbidities among women with cardiometabolic conditions.Peer reviewe

    Sveriges utslĂ€pp mĂ„ste minska nu, regeringen : 531 forskare: Annars Ă€r sveket monumentalt – ni kan inte sĂ€ga att ni inte visste

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