26 research outputs found

    Retention rate of physicians in public health administration agencies and their career paths in Japan

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Physicians who serve as public health specialists at public health centers and health departments in local or central government have significant roles because of their public health expertise. The aim of this study is to analyze the retention and career paths of such specialists in Japan.</p> <p>Method</p> <p>We analyzed the data of seven consecutive surveys, spanning 1994 to 2006. We first analyzed the 2006 survey data by sex, age group, and facility type. We then examined the changes over time in the proportion of physicians working in public health administration agencies. We also examined the distribution of the facility types and specialties in which physicians worked both before beginning and after leaving their jobs. These analyses were performed by using physician registration numbers to cross-link data from two consecutive surveys.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The proportion of physicians working in public health administration agencies was 0.7% in 2006. The actual numbers for each survey ranged between 1,800 and 1,900. The overall rate remaining in public health administration agencies during the two-year survey interval was 72.8% for 1994-1996. The ratio declined to 67.2% for 2004-2006. Among younger physicians with 1-10 years of experience, the retention rate showed a sharp decline, dropping from 72.6% to 50.0%. Many of these physicians came from or left for a hospital position, with the proportion entering academic hospital institutions increasing in recent years. In many cases, physicians left or entered internal medicine clinical practices.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>At present in Japan, the number of physicians who leave and the number who begin a position are almost the same; thus, some of the problems associated with physicians leaving are yet to become apparent. However, the fact that the retention period is shortening for younger physicians may represent a future problem for ensuring the quality of physicians in public health administration agencies. Possible strategies include: increasing the number of physicians entering positions; reducing the number leaving positions; and creating a system where physicians can easily reenter positions after leaving while also establishing a revolving door type of career development system, involving both public health departments and hospital clinical departments.</p

    The health impact of remarriage behavior on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: findings from the US longitudinal survey

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major disease among adults, and its deterioration was reported to be associated with psychological imbalance. Meanwhile, bereavement and divorce have proven harmful to the health status of a surviving spouse. But few studies have been conducted to evaluate the remedial effect on survivors' health outcome by remarriage after bereavement. The present study thus examined the associations between remarriage and the onset of COPD.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Our cohort was drawn from Health and Retirement Study participants in the United States, and consisted of 2676 subjects who were divorced or bereaved from 1992 to 2002. We then followed them for up to 11 years and assessed the incidence rate of COPD using a Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for marital status, age, gender, education and the number of cigarettes smoked.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Among all subjects, 224 who remarried after bereavement or divorce tended to be younger and more male dominated. Remarriage after bereavement/divorce was associated with significantly decreased risk of COPD onset for overall subjects [hazard ratio (HR): 0.51, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.28-0.94], female subjects [HR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.13-0.98], and for those under 70 years old [HR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.17-0.79].</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>This study investigates the impact of remarriage on health outcome based on a large-scale population survey and indicates that remarriage significantly correlates with reduced risk of COPD incidence, even after adjusting smoking habit.</p

    Physical and Mental Effects of Bathing: A Randomized Intervention Study

    No full text
    Showering is the most common form of bathing worldwide. Whole-body immersion bathing in warm water (~40°C) is common in Japan and exerts sufficient hyperthermic action to induce vasodilatation and increase blood flow, supplying more oxygen and nutrients to the periphery. Cross-sectional studies report better subjective health status with an immersion bathing habit. This randomized controlled trial compared the effects on health of immersion bathing and shower bathing in 38 participants who received 2-week intervention of immersion bathing in warm water (40°C) for 10 min (bathing intervention) followed by 2-week shower bathing without immersion (showering intervention) or vice versa (n = 19 each group). Visual analog scale scores were significantly better for fatigue, stress, pain, and smile and tended to be better for self-reported heath and skin condition after bathing intervention than after showering intervention. The SF-8 Health Survey showed significantly better general health, mental health, role emotional, and social functioning scores. Profile of Mood State scores were lower for stress, tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, and depression-dejection. Immersion bathing, but not shower bathing, exerts hyperthermic action that induces increased blood flow and metabolic waste elimination, which may afford physical refreshment. Immersion bathing should improve both physical and emotional aspects of quality of life

    Factors Influencing Collaborative Activities between Non-Professional Disaster Volunteers and Victims of Earthquake Disasters

    Get PDF
    <div><h3>Background</h3><p>Assistance from non-professional disaster volunteers (hereinafter, volunteers) is essential for disaster victims to recover physically and rebuild their lives; however, disaster victims in some areas are reluctant to accept assistance from volunteers. This study explored factors that may influence collaborative activities between volunteers and victims of earthquake disasters.</p> <h3>Methods</h3><p>From July to September 2008, a self-reporting questionnaire survey was conducted with all 302 leaders of neighborhood associations in a city within Niigata Prefecture at the time of the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007. Each factor was determined based on the Health Belief Model. Multiple regression analysis was conducted, using collaborative activities as the objective variable.</p> <h3>Results</h3><p>From 261 valid responses received (response rate 86.4%), 41.3% of leaders collaborated with volunteers, and 60.2% of associations had residents who collaborated with volunteers. Collaboration with volunteers was significantly and positively related to perceived severity of an earthquake disaster (standardized partial regression coefficient β = 0.224, p<0.001) and neighborhood association activities during the earthquake disaster (β = 0.539, p<0.001). A positive and marginally significant relation was found between such collaboration and sense of coherence within a community (β = 0.137, p = 0.06), social capital (β = 0.119, p = 0.08), and perceived benefits (β = 0.116, p = 0.09).</p> <h3>Conclusion</h3><p>Collaboration between disaster victims and volunteers during the response to an earthquake may require the preemptive estimation of damage by residents during normal times and the enhancement of neighborhood association activities during a disaster. For residents to have such estimation abilities, public institutions should provide information related to anticipated disaster damage and appropriate disaster prevention training and education. In addition, residents should create a disaster prevention map with other residents. Lastly, promoting neighborhood association activities may require the participation of many residents in disaster drills and education as well as a preemptive discussion of neighborhood activities during a disaster.</p> </div