313 research outputs found

    The Stellar and Gaseous Contents of the Orion Dwarf Galaxy

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    We present new KPNO 0.9-m optical and VLA HI spectral line observations of the Orion dwarf galaxy. This nearby (D ~ 5.4 Mpc), intermediate-mass (M_dyn = 1.1x10^10 Solar masses) dwarf displays a wealth of structure in its neutral ISM, including three prominent "hole/depression" features in the inner HI disk. We explore the rich gas kinematics, where solid-body rotation dominates and the rotation curve is flat out to the observed edge of the HI disk (~6.8 kpc). The Orion dwarf contains a substantial fraction of dark matter throughout its disk: comparing the 4.7x10^8 Solar masses of detected neutral gas with estimates of the stellar mass from optical and near-infrared imaging (3.7x10^8 Solar masses) implies a mass-to-light ratio of ~13. New H alpha observations show only modest-strength current star formation (~0.04 Solar masses per year); this star formation rate is consistent with our 1.4 GHz radio continuum non-detection.Comment: Astronomical Journal, in press. Full-resolution version available from http://www.macalester.edu/~jcannon/pubs.htm

    The Norwegian childhood cancer biobank

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    Background - The rapidly expanding era of “omics” research is highly dependent on the availability of quality-proven biological material, especially for rare conditions such as pediatric malignancies. Professional biobanks provide such material, focusing on standardized collection and handling procedures, distinctive quality measurements, traceability of storage conditions, and accessibility. For pediatric malignancies, traditional tumor biobanking is challenging due to the rareness and limited amount of tissue and blood samples. The higher molecular heterogeneity, lower mutation rates, and unique genomic landscapes, however, renders biobanking of this tissue even more crucial. Aim - The aim of this study was to test and establish methods for a prospective and centralized biobank for infants, children, and adolescents up to 18 years of age diagnosed with cancer in Norway. Methods - Obtain judicial and ethical approvals and administration through a consortium, steering committee, and advisory board. Develop pipelines including SOPs for all aspects in the biobank process, including collection, processing and storing of samples and data, as well of quality controlling, safeguarding, distributing, and transport. Results - The childhood cancer biobanking started at Oslo University Hospital in March 2017 and was from 2019 run as a national Norwegian Childhood Cancer Biobank. Informed consent and biological samples are collected regionally and stored centrally. Approximately 12 000 samples from 510 patients and have been included by January 1, 2021, representing a 96% consent and participation rate among our newly diagnosed patients. Conclusion - A well-functioning nationwide collection and centralized biobank with standardized procedures and national storage for pediatric malignancies has been established with a high acceptance among families

    Genomic evolution of breast cancer metastasis and relapse

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    A.G.L. and J.H.R.F. were supported by a Cancer Research UK Program Grant to Simon Tavaré (C14303/A17197).Patterns of genomic evolution between primary and metastatic breast cancer have not been studied in large numbers, despite patients with metastatic breast cancer having dismal survival. We sequenced whole genomes or a panel of 365 genes on 299 samples from 170 patients with locally relapsed or metastatic breast cancer. Several lines of analysis indicate that clones seeding metastasis or relapse disseminate late from primary tumors, but continue to acquire mutations, mostly accessing the same mutational processes active in the primary tumor. Most distant metastases acquired driver mutations not seen in the primary tumor, drawing from a wider repertoire of cancer genes than early drivers. These include a number of clinically actionable alterations and mutations inactivating SWI-SNF and JAK2-STAT3 pathways.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Subclonal diversification of primary breast cancer revealed by multiregion sequencing.

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    The sequencing of cancer genomes may enable tailoring of therapeutics to the underlying biological abnormalities driving a particular patient's tumor. However, sequencing-based strategies rely heavily on representative sampling of tumors. To understand the subclonal structure of primary breast cancer, we applied whole-genome and targeted sequencing to multiple samples from each of 50 patients' tumors (303 samples in total). The extent of subclonal diversification varied among cases and followed spatial patterns. No strict temporal order was evident, with point mutations and rearrangements affecting the most common breast cancer genes, including PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, BRCA2 and MYC, occurring early in some tumors and late in others. In 13 out of 50 cancers, potentially targetable mutations were subclonal. Landmarks of disease progression, such as resistance to chemotherapy and the acquisition of invasive or metastatic potential, arose within detectable subclones of antecedent lesions. These findings highlight the importance of including analyses of subclonal structure and tumor evolution in clinical trials of primary breast cancer

    Bruk av standardiserte besvarelser i patologi - et kvalitetsforbedrende tiltak

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    Fullstendige og korrekte patologirapporter er viktige for å kunne gi kreftomsorg med god kvalitet. Kreftregisteret og Den norske patologforening har tidligere utviklet en nasjonal elektronisk mal for rapportering av operasjonspreparater med colorectal cancer. Prosjektet ble satt i verk for å undersøke 1) om kvalitetsrutiner i norske patologilaboratorier påvirker hvor fullstendige rapportene er utfylt og 2) om den nasjonale elektroniske malen bedrer rapporteringen sammenlignet med andre måter å formidle resultatene på. Et spørreskjema om kvalitetsrutiner ble sendt til alle landets 21 patologilaboratorier. Alle patologirapporter mottatt Kreftregisteret i en 3-måneders periode høsten 2007 og som omhandlet operasjonspreparater med colorectal cancer, ble vurdert mhp type rapportering og rapportering av 11 nøkkelvariabler. Av de 20 laboratoriene som besvarte operasjonspreparater med colorectal cancer, hadde 16 skrevne retningslinjer for rapportering. Av disse brukte 4 den nasjonale elektroniske mal, 5 brukte sjekkliste, 3 brukte lokalt utviklet elektronisk templat, mens 4 verken brukte mal eller sjekkliste. Av de 650 rapportene, som var sendt Kreftregisteret i den aktuelle 3 måneders perioden, var den nasjonale malen blitt brukt i 170 rapporter (26%), sjekkliste/lokal elektronisk mal i 112 (17%) og fritekst i 368 (57%) rapporter. Bruk av nasjonal elektronisk mal forbedret signifikant (p<0,05) rapporteringen av 11 nøkkelvariabler sammenlignet med sjekklister, lokalt utviklet elektronisk mal og fritekst. Rapporten viser at en standardisert patologirapport sikrer en fullstendig besvarelse. Ulike årsaker for å forklare hvorfor bruk av en slik rapporteringsform ikke nyttes i større utstrekning ved norske patologilaboratorier, blir diskutert

    Implantable nerve stimulator electrode

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