8,900 research outputs found

    The Telerobot Contact Hypothesis

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    We propose using telerobots as a medium for intergroup contact, aiming to reduce prejudice between groups in conflict. Telerobots are located in the middle ground between the physical and the virtual realms,providing the flexibility of online communication and the depth of physical interactions. Combining research from intergroup contact theory, communication studies, and human-robot interaction, we present the telerobot contact hypothesis - a set of guidelines, recommendations, and caveats in robot interaction design that strive for the optimal intergroup contact result. The guidelines follow a consistent conceptual model and define the architecture of a telerobotic event, from the first encounter to the pursued reduction of prejudice. We end with recommendations and hopes for further empirical research.Peer reviewe

    Digital Rights to the City: Local Practices and Negotiations of Urban Space on Decidim

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    The organization, management, and production of urban space through digital information and communication technologies have become a central means for governing urban life. To overcome a lack of citizen-centered practices in today's smart cities, governments and municipalities institutionalize citizen-centered digital infrastructures such as Decidim, a digital infrastructure proposing non-corporate, decentralized, and collaborative forms of digital production to evoke participatory governance practices and ultimately social transformation (Barandiaran et al., 2018). Swiss city administrations have adapted the Decidim platform for participatory budgeting processes and city-wide participation platforms since 2019. This article explores the process of institutional adoption, focusing on how the use of Decidim impacts local practices and negotiations for governing urban space. The examination of the Decidim platform in the Swiss cities of Zurich and Lucerne will be framed by re-conceptualizing Lefebvre's right to the city in the age of digital transformation. The findings show that for a successful introduction of the Decidim platform based on principles of the right to the city (a) local needs for a new digital democratic instrument need to be pre-existent, (b) government employees must implement a scope of action which allows organized civil society and grassroots initiatives to appropriate the infrastructure for their own purposes, and (c) local practices of hybrid communication and organizing must be aligned with the structure of the platform. Nevertheless, digital participation tools such as Decidim cannot solve entrenched inequalities such as the financialization of land, the issue of disadvantaged neighborhoods, or the absence of voting rights for certain communities. Therefore, city administrations need to integrate hybrid participation strategies which prioritise collective power over distributive power as well as tackle urban inequalities through political means

    Single-Molecule FRET at 10 MHz Count Rates

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    A bottleneck in many studies utilizing single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer is the attainable photon count rate, as it determines the temporal resolution of the experiment. As many biologically relevant processes occur on time scales that are hardly accessible with currently achievable photon count rates, there has been considerable effort to find strategies to increase the stability and brightness of fluorescent dyes. Here, we use DNA nanoantennas to drastically increase the achievable photon count rates and observe fast biomolecular dynamics in the small volume between two plasmonic nanoparticles. As a proof of concept, we observe the coupled folding and binding of two intrinsically disordered proteins, which form transient encounter complexes with lifetimes on the order of 100 ÎŒs. To test the limits of our approach, we also investigated the hybridization of a short single-stranded DNA to its complementary counterpart, revealing a transition path time of 17 ÎŒs at photon count rates of around 10 MHz, which is an order-of-magnitude improvement compared to the state of the art. Concomitantly, the photostability was increased, enabling many seconds long megahertz fluorescence time traces. Due to the modular nature of the DNA origami method, this platform can be adapted to a broad range of biomolecules, providing a promising approach to study previously unobservable ultrafast biophysical processes

    Human selection bias drives the linear nature of the more ground truth effect in explainable deep learning optical coherence tomography image segmentation

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    Supervised Deep Learning (DL) algorithms are highly dependent on training data for which human graders are assigned, e.g. for optical coherence tomography (OCT) image annotation. Despite the tremendous success of DL, due to human judgement, these ground truth labels can be inaccurate and/or ambiguous and cause a human selection bias. We therefore investigated the impact of the size of the ground truth and variable numbers of graders on the predictive performance of the same DL architecture and repeated each experiment 3 times. The largest training dataset delivered a prediction performance close to that of human experts. All DL systems utilized were highly consistent. Nevertheless, the DL under‐performers could not achieve any further autonomous improvement even after repeated training. Furthermore, a quantifiable linear relationship between ground truth ambiguity and the beneficial effect of having a larger amount of ground truth data was detected and marked as the more‐ground‐truth effect.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

    Think Interdisciplinary to Improve a Complex Multifactorial Gait Disorder of a 28-Year-Old Polio Patient

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    Think Interdisciplinary to Improve a Complex Multifactorial Gait Disorder of a 28-Year-Old Polio Patient Abstract. Poliomyelitis with the resulting paralytic sequelae is hardly present in Switzerland anymore and if so, only in elderly persons. The last reported case of poliomyelitis in Switzerland was received by the FOPH in 1982. A 28-year-old patient with paralytic poliomyelitis is extremely rare in this country. A combined multifactorial gait disorder with symptomatic hip dysplasia, pronounced leg length shortening and axial malalignment of the leg on the polio-affected side make this case unique and a special interdisciplinary challenge

    A trait-based framework for seagrass ecology: Trends and prospects

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    In the last three decades, quantitative approaches that rely on organism traits instead of taxonomy have advanced different fields of ecological research through establishing the mechanistic links between environmental drivers, functional traits, and ecosystem functions. A research subfield where trait-based approaches have been frequently used but poorly synthesized is the ecology of seagrasses; marine angiosperms that colonized the ocean 100M YA and today make up productive yet threatened coastal ecosystems globally. Here, we compiled a comprehensive trait-based response-effect framework (TBF) which builds on previous concepts and ideas, including the use of traits for the study of community assembly processes, from dispersal and response to abiotic and biotic factors, to ecosystem function and service provision. We then apply this framework to the global seagrass literature, using a systematic review to identify the strengths, gaps, and opportunities of the field. Seagrass trait research has mostly focused on the effect of environmental drivers on traits, i.e., “environmental filtering” (72%), whereas links between traits and functions are less common (26.9%). Despite the richness of trait-based data available, concepts related to TBFs are rare in the seagrass literature (15% of studies), including the relative importance of neutral and niche assembly processes, or the influence of trait dominance or complementarity in ecosystem function provision. These knowledge gaps indicate ample potential for further research, highlighting the need to understand the links between the unique traits of seagrasses and the ecosystem services they provide

    Climatic and weathering conditions in southern high latitudes during the Turonian-Santonian interval: New insights from IODP Site U1512 (Bight Basin, Southern Australia)

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    International audienceA detailed study, based on a coupled mineralogical and geochemical approach, was done on IODP Site U1512 sediments (Bight Basin, Southern Australia). The mineral assemblages of the clay size fraction (75), is followed by an interval of lower chemical weathering with enhanced biogenic silica during the Middle/Late Turonian. The slight increase of kaolinites, recorded during Coniacian and coeval with increase of Ti/Al and Zr/Al ratios, probably reflects an increase in coarser terrigenous inputs associated with a sea-level fall