55,333 research outputs found

    Historical changes in the groundfish fishery.

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    (a) Ex-vessel revenue coastwide, (b) mean (¬ĪSD) annual ex-vessel revenue by state for 2011‚Äď2019, (c) number of port groups, (d) number of vessels, and (e) revenue consolidation (estimated with the absolute Theil Index, calculated for each port group; [45]). A port group represents a collection of individual ports; these groups were developed by the Pacific Fisheries Management Council (S1 Table). All revenue data were adjusted for inflation to 2021 USD. See S1 Text for methodological details.</p

    Leave one out cross validation for regression of exposure based on bottom temperature change relative to historical variability using the GFDL Earth System Model against latitude.

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    Points and error bars represent estimates of the coefficient of this regression (¬Ī2 SE) with the corresponding fleet removed from the data, red line indicates the mean estimate of the coefficient with all fleets included in the analysis. Changes in sign of the coefficient indicate a difference in the qualitative directional relationship between exposure based on bottom temperature change relative to historical variability and latitude. (TIFF)</p

    Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

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    International audienceUltrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb‚ąí1^{-1}. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 ¬Ī\pm 0.002 (stat) ¬Ī\pm 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 ¬Ī\pm 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Measurement of multidifferential cross sections for dijet production in proton-proton collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV