55 research outputs found

    Reducing the environmental impact of surgery on a global scale: systematic review and co-prioritization with healthcare workers in 132 countries

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    Abstract Background Healthcare cannot achieve net-zero carbon without addressing operating theatres. The aim of this study was to prioritize feasible interventions to reduce the environmental impact of operating theatres. Methods This study adopted a four-phase Delphi consensus co-prioritization methodology. In phase 1, a systematic review of published interventions and global consultation of perioperative healthcare professionals were used to longlist interventions. In phase 2, iterative thematic analysis consolidated comparable interventions into a shortlist. In phase 3, the shortlist was co-prioritized based on patient and clinician views on acceptability, feasibility, and safety. In phase 4, ranked lists of interventions were presented by their relevance to high-income countries and low‚Äďmiddle-income countries. Results In phase 1, 43 interventions were identified, which had low uptake in practice according to 3042 professionals globally. In phase 2, a shortlist of 15 intervention domains was generated. In phase 3, interventions were deemed acceptable for more than 90 per cent of patients except for reducing general anaesthesia (84 per cent) and re-sterilization of ‚Äėsingle-use‚Äô consumables (86 per cent). In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for high-income countries were: introducing recycling; reducing use of anaesthetic gases; and appropriate clinical waste processing. In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for low‚Äďmiddle-income countries were: introducing reusable surgical devices; reducing use of consumables; and reducing the use of general anaesthesia. Conclusion This is a step toward environmentally sustainable operating environments with actionable interventions applicable to both high‚Äď and low‚Äďmiddle‚Äďincome countries

    Cardiac remodeling in subclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the VANISH randomized clinical trial

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    Importance: Valsartan has shown promise in attenuating cardiac remodeling in patients with early-stage sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Genetic testing can identify individuals at risk of HCM in a subclinical stage who could benefit from therapies that prevent disease progression. Objective: To explore the potential for valsartan to modify disease development, and to characterize short-term phenotypic progression in subclinical HCM. Design, Setting, and Participants: The multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled Valsartan for Attenuating Disease Evolution in Early Sarcomeric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (VANISH) randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 2014 to July 2019 at 17 sites in 4 countries (Brazil, Canada, Denmark, and the US), with 2 years of follow-up. The prespecified exploratory VANISH cohort studied here included sarcomere variant carriers with subclinical HCM and early phenotypic manifestations (reduced E‚Ä≤ velocity, electrocardiographic abnormalities, or an increased left ventricular [LV] wall thickness [LVWT] to cavity diameter ratio) but no LV hypertrophy (LVH). Data were analyzed between March and December 2022. Interventions: Treatment with placebo or valsartan (80 mg/d for children weighing <35 kg, 160 mg/d for children weighing ‚Č•35 kg, or 320 mg/d for adults aged ‚Č•18 years). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite z score incorporating changes in 9 parameters of cardiac remodeling (LV cavity volume, LVWT, and LV mass; left atrial [LA] volume; E‚Ä≤ velocity and S‚Ä≤ velocity; and serum troponin and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide levels). Results: This study included 34 participants, with a mean (SD) age of 16‚ÄČ(5) years (all were White). A total of 18 participants (8 female [44%] and 10 male [56%]) were randomized to valsartan and 16 (9 female [56%] and 7 male [44%]) were randomized to placebo. No statistically significant effects of valsartan on cardiac remodeling were detected (mean change in composite z score compared with placebo: ‚ąí0.01 [95% CI, ‚ąí0.29 to 0.26]; P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ.92). Overall, 2-year phenotypic progression was modest, with only a mild increase in LA volume detected (increased by 3.5 mL/m2 [95% CI, 1.4-6.0 mL/m2]; P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ.002). Nine participants (26%) had increased LVWT, including 6 (18%) who developed clinically overt HCM. Baseline LA volume index (LAVI; 35 vs 28 mL/m2; P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ.01) and average interventricular septum thickness (8.5 vs 7.0 mm; P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ.009) were higher in participants who developed HCM. Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory cohort, valsartan was not proven to slow progression of subclinical HCM. Minimal changes in markers of cardiac remodeling were observed, although nearly one-fifth of patients developed clinically overt HCM. Transition to disease was associated with greater baseline interventricular septum thickness and LAVI. These findings highlight the importance of following sarcomere variant carriers longitudinally and the critical need to improve understanding of factors that drive disease penetrance and progression. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT0191253

    Valsartan in early-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy:a randomized phase 2 trial

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    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often caused by pathogenic variants in sarcomeric genes and characterized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and increased risk of heart failure and arrhythmias. There are no existing therapies to modify disease progression. In this study, we conducted a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of the angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan in attenuating disease evolution in early HCM. In total, 178 participants with early-stage sarcomeric HCM were randomized (1:1) to receive valsartan (320 mg daily in adults; 80‚Äď160 mg daily in children) or placebo for 2 years (NCT01912534). Standardized changes from baseline to year 2 in LV wall thickness, mass and volumes; left atrial volume; tissue Doppler diastolic and systolic velocities; and serum levels of high-sensitivity troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic protein were integrated into a single composite z-score as the primary outcome. Valsartan (n = 88) improved cardiac structure and function compared to placebo (n = 90), as reflected by an increase in the composite z-score (between-group difference +0.231, 95% confidence interval (+0.098, +0.364); P = 0.001), which met the primary endpoint of the study. Treatment was well-tolerated. These results indicate a key opportunity to attenuate disease progression in early-stage sarcomeric HCM with an accessible and safe medication

    Baseline Characteristics of the VANISH Cohort

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    Background: The VANISH trial (Valsartan for Attenuating Disease Evolution in Early Sarcomeric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy) targeted young sarcomeric gene mutation carriers with early-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) to test whether valsartan can modify disease progression. We describe the baseline characteristics of the VANISH cohort and compare to previous trials evaluating angiotensin receptor blockers. Methods: Applying a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design, 178 participants with nonobstructive HCM (age, 23.3¬Ī10.1 years; 61% men) were randomized in the primary cohort and 34 (age, 16.5¬Ī4.9 years; 50% men) in the exploratory cohort of sarcomeric mutation carriers without left ventricular hypertrophy. Results: In the primary cohort, maximal left ventricular wall thickness was 17¬Ī4 mm for adults and Z score 7.0¬Ī4.5 for children. Nineteen percent had late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance. Mean peak oxygen consumption was 33 mL/kg per minute, and 92% of participants were New York Heart Association functional class I. New York Heart Association class II was associated with older age, MYH7 variants, and more prominent imaging abnormalities. Six previous trials of angiotensin receptor blockers in HCM enrolled a median of 24 patients (range, 19‚Äď133) with mean age of 51.2 years; 42% of patients were in New York Heart Association class ‚Č•II, and sarcomeric mutations were not required. Conclusions: The VANISH cohort is much larger, younger, less heterogeneous, and has less advanced disease than prior angiotensin receptor blocker trials in HCM. Participants had relatively normal functional capacity and mild HCM features. New York Heart Association functional class II symptoms were associated with older age, more prominent imaging abnormalities, and MYH7 variants, suggesting both phenotype and genotype contribute to disease manifestations

    Exercise Echocardiography in Asymptomatic HCM Exercise Capacity, and Not LV Outflow Tract Gradient Predicts Long-Term Outcomes

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    ObjectivesThis study sought to assess long-term outcomes in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) who underwent exercise echocardiography, without invasive therapies for relief of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction.BackgroundMany HCM patients present with LVOT obstruction, mitral regurgitation (MR), and diastolic dysfunction, often requiring invasive therapies for symptomatic relief. However, a significant proportion of truly asymptomatic patients can be closely monitored. In HCM patients, exercise echocardiography has been shown to be a useful assessment of functional capacity and risk stratification.MethodsWe included 426 HCM patients (44 ¬Ī 14 years; 78% men) undergoing exercise echocardiography, excluding hypertensive heart disease of elderly, ejection fraction <50% and invasive therapy (myectomy or alcohol ablation) during follow-up. Clinical, echocardiographic (LV thickness, LVOT gradient, and MR) and exercise variables (percent of age-sex predicted metabolic equivalents [METs] and heart rate recovery [HRR] at 1 min post-exercise) were recorded. A composite endpoint of death, appropriate internal defibrillator discharge, and admission for congestive heart failure was recorded.ResultsPatients were asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic on history, but 82% of patients achieved <100% of age-sex predicted METs, and 43% had ‚Č•II+ post-stress MR. The mean LV septal thickness, post-exercise LVOT gradient, and HRR were 2.0 ¬Ī 0.5 cm, 62 ¬Ī 47 mm Hg, and 31 ¬Ī 14 beats/min, respectively. During a mean follow-up of 8.7 ¬Ī 3 years, there were 52 events (12%). Patients achieving >100% of age-sex predicted METs had 1% event rate versus 12% in those achieving <85%. On stepwise multivariate survival analysis, percent of age-sex predicted METs (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64 to 0.90), abnormal HRR (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82 to 0.97), and atrial fibrillation (HR: 2.73; 95% CI: 1.30 to 5.74) (overall, p < 0.001) independently predicted outcomes.ConclusionsIn asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic HCM patients, exercise stress testing provides excellent risk stratification, with a low event rate in patients achieving >100% of predicted METs

    Hypertrophied Papillary Muscles as a Masquerade of Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

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    Impact of left ventricular volume/mass ratio on diastolic function

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    Aims To assess the impact of left ventricular (LV) volume/mass ratio on diastolic function parameters in subjects with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and healthy controls. Methods and results We performed echocardiography in 44 healthy controls, 35 HCM subjects, 29 DCM subjects with narrow QRS complex (DCM-n), and 27 DCM subjects with wide QRS complex (DCM-w). Mitral annulus velocity (Ea) and trans-mitral E-wave velocity were used to estimate time constant of isovolumic pressure decay (t). LV flow propagation velocity (Vp) and early intraventricular pressure gradient (IVPG) were derived from colour M-mode of LV inflow. We calculated LV twist and peak untwisting rate (UntwR) by speckle tracking. Mean LV volume/mass ratio was 0.34+ 0.09 mL/g in healthy controls, 0.15+0.06 mL/g in HCM, 0.6+ 0.2 mL/g in DCM-n, and 0.8+0.3 mL/g in DCM-w patients (P, 0.001 for all groups). Resting LV ejection fractions were 63+ 7, 64+ 8, 31+8, and 26+8%, respectively (P, 0.01 vs. controls for DCM groups). In a multivariate analysis, LV volume/mass rati
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