43,212 research outputs found

    Learning-based oviposition constancy in insects

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    The search for resources occupies a major part of the time and energy budget of many insects. In this context, many insects display constancy behavior, in which they learn to return to the same, predictably rewarding resource repeatedly. Flower constancy is one such behavior, where nectar-feeding insects restrict foraging visits to a few plant species, sometimes overlooking potentially better-rewarding plants. This phenomenon is well documented in multiple species and is believed to be an optimal strategy to maximize benefits, while minimizing energy and time expenditure. Oviposition constancy is a similar behavior, where insects, dependent on previous experience, restrict their visits to a few types of potential oviposition sites. In contrast to flower constancy, the prevalence of oviposition constancy and the rationale behind this behavior are relatively unknown. An improved understanding of oviposition constancy can act as a lens into the evolutionary history of local insect adaptations, it can help gauge the impact of climate change on insect plant interactions, and it can aid the design of crop-pest management strategies. In this review, we discuss the potential benefits of oviposition constancy in insects and the extent of plasticity occurring in host-plant choice for oviposition

    Social secretaries and treatment secretaries’ perceptions of whether young people's needs can be accommodated at SiS homes : A qualitative case study with a focus on BBIC as a method.

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    Studien syftar till att undersöka om socialsekreterare och behandlingssekreterare upplever att ungdomar som placeras pÄ Statens institutionsstyrelse [SiS] kan fÄ sina behov tillgodosedda enligt den evidensbaserade metoden BBIC. Studien berör Àven vad socialsekreterare och behandlingssekreterare har för upplevelse om anvÀndningen att arbeta utifrÄn standardiserade utredningsmetoder och praktiksbaserade kunskaper. UtifrÄn ett stort bortfall kommer studien Àven att undersöka barn och ungdomars egna erfarenheter av att vara placerade pÄ SiS-hem utifrÄn tvÄ rapporter frÄn SiS. Studien bygger pÄ en kvalitativ ansats, kombinerat som en fallstudie. För att bearbeta och analysera det empiriska materialet har en tematisk analys anvÀnts. Studien har sin teoretiska utgÄngspunkt i evidensbaserad praktik vilket Àr uppdelad i specifika faktorer och allmÀnna faktorer utifrÄn dodobird-effekten. Insamling av data till empirin bestÄr av kvalitativa interjvuer med tvÄ socialsekreterare och en behandlingssekreterare frÄn olika kommuner i Sverige samt tvÄ SiS-rapporter. Huvudresultatet visade att det ör svÄrt att erbjuda rÀtt insats och ge rÀtt resurser till denna grupp i samhÀllet pÄ grund av ett begrÀnsat urval av insatser och begrÀnsade resurser. Detta Àr med hÀnsyn till flera olika faktorer sÄ som lagstifningen, samverkan, arbetskraft samt en anstrÀngd relation till viktiga aktörer i ungdomars liv. I en verksamhet som SiS blir det dÀrför svÄrt att kunna tillgodose barn och ungas behov i samtliga omrÄden utifrÄn de behov som BBIC anser krÀvs för barns vÀlstÄnd

    Semantic processing of verbal narratives compared to semantic processing of visual narratives : an ERP study of school-aged children

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    There is a misconception that pictures are easy to comprehend, which is problematic in pedagogical practices that include pictures. For example, if a child has difficulties with verbal narration to picture sequences, it may be interpreted as specific to spoken language even though the child may have additional difficulties with comprehension of visual narratives in the form of picture sequences. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase our understanding of semantic processing in the pictorial domain in relation to semantic processing in the verbal domain, focusing on 9–13 years-old children with typical language development. To this end, we measured electrical brain responses (event related potentials, ERPs) in 17 children to (i) pictures (panels) that were predicted versus unpredicted in sequences of panels that conveyed visual narratives and (ii) words that were predicted versus unpredicted in sentences that conveyed verbal narratives. Results demonstrated similarities as there were no significant difference in the magnitude of the N400 effect across domains. The only difference between domains was the predicted difference in distribution, that is, a more posterior N400 effect in the verbal domain than in the pictorial domain. The study contributes to an increased understanding of the complexity of processing of visual narratives and its shared features with processing of verbal narratives, which should be considered in pedagogical practices. https://lnu.se/forskning/forskningsprojekt/projekt-sprakbearbetning-domangenerell-eller-domanspecifik

    A novel computational pipeline for var gene expression augments the discovery of changes in the Plasmodium falciparum transcriptome during transition from in vivo to short-term in vitro culture

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    The pathogenesis of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria involves cytoadhesive microvascular sequestration of infected erythrocytes, mediated by P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). PfEMP1 variants are encoded by the highly polymorphic family of var genes, the sequences of which are largely unknown in clinical samples. Previously, we published new approaches for var gene profiling and classification of predicted binding phenotypes in clinical P. falciparum isolates (Wichers et al., 2021), which represented a major technical advance. Building on this, we report here a novel method for var gene assembly and multidimensional quantification from RNA-sequencing that outperforms the earlier approach of Wichers et al., 2021, on both laboratory and clinical isolates across a combination of metrics. Importantly, the tool can interrogate the var transcriptome in context with the rest of the transcriptome and can be applied to enhance our understanding of the role of var genes in malaria pathogenesis. We applied this new method to investigate changes in var gene expression through early transition of parasite isolates to in vitro culture, using paired sets of ex vivo samples from our previous study, cultured for up to three generations. In parallel, changes in non-polymorphic core gene expression were investigated. Modest but unpredictable var gene switching and convergence towards var2csa were observed in culture, along with differential expression of 19% of the core transcriptome between paired ex vivo and generation 1 samples. Our results cast doubt on the validity of the common practice of using short-term cultured parasites to make inferences about in vivo phenotype and behaviour

    A comparative study of governmental financial support and resilience of self-employed people in Sweden and Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    ABSTRACTGlobally, self-employed people were among the hardest hit by the repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic and faced hardships such as financial decline, restrictions, and business closures. A plethora of financial support measures were rolled out worldwide to support them, but there is a lack of research looking at the effect of the policy measures on self-employed people. To understand how different governmental financial support measures enhanced the resilience of the self-employed and improved their ability to manage the pandemic, we conducted a mixed-method study using policy analysis and semi-structured interviews. The documents described policies addressing governmental financial support in Sweden and Canada during the pandemic, and the interviews were conducted with Swedish and Canadian self-employed people to explore how they experienced the support measures in relation to their resilience. The key results were that self-employed people in both countries who were unable to telework were less resilient during the pandemic due to financial problems, restrictions, and lockdowns. The interviews revealed that many self-employed people in hard-hit industries were dissatisfied with the support measures and found them to be unfairly distributed. In addition, the self-employed people experiencing difficulties running their businesses reported reduced well-being, negatively affecting their business survival

    Promoting or preventing gender equality? : A critical discourse analysis of how Aftonbladet reports on male and female victims of fatal domestic violence

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    Med ett kritiskt diskursanalytiskt tankesĂ€tt Ă€mnar denna uppsats att studera hur nyhetsmedier rapporterar om manliga offer respektive kvinnliga offer för dödligt vĂ„ld i nĂ€ra relation. Syftet med studien Ă€r att utreda om nyhetsmediet Aftonbladet i sin nyhetsrapportering bidrar till stigmatiseringen av kvinnliga och manliga offer för dödligt vĂ„ld i nĂ€ra relation. I denna studie ska det Ă€ven analyseras hur Aftonbladet vĂ€ljer att tilldela skuld i fallen för att undersöka hur de ser pĂ„ maskulinitet och femininitet. Studien Ă€mnar att bidra med kunskap om huruvida Aftonbladet frĂ€mjar eller hĂ€mmar jĂ€mstĂ€lldhet i samhĂ€llet, stigmatisering kring könen och om de bidrar till de patriarkala idĂ©erna. För att besvara forskningsfrĂ„gorna analyserades elva artiklar mellan Ă„ren 2016 till 2023. Resultatet visar att manliga offer refereras pĂ„ ett opersonligt sĂ€tt dĂ€r den kvinnliga gĂ€rningsmannen stĂ„r i fokus i artiklarna. De manliga offren tilldelas Ă€ven skuld i brottet i och med de attribut som de tilldelas och hur de representeras inför och under morden dĂ€r de misshandlade kvinnan, vilket anvĂ€nds som rĂ€ttfĂ€rdigande för tilldelningen av skuld. DĂ€rmed bidrar Aftonbladet inte till stigmatiseringen kring manliga offer och frĂ€mjar jĂ€mstĂ€lldhet i samhĂ€llet. Resultatet av de kvinnliga offren visar att de tilldelas attribut som Ă€r personliga, och dĂ€rmed ger lĂ€saren en “vi”-kĂ€nsla. PĂ„ grund av det fĂ„r kvinnliga offer ingen tilldelning av skuld i brott. Dock innebĂ€r detta att Aftonbladet bidrar till stigmatiseringen dĂ„ de kvinnliga offren Ă€ven fĂ„r attribut som svaga och rĂ€dda samt inte frĂ€mjar jĂ€mstĂ€lldhet. DĂ€remot frĂ€mjar Aftonbladet jĂ€mstĂ€lldhet i och med att de kvinnliga offren fĂ„r mer utrymme i artiklarna och könsmaktsordningen bryts.Using a discourse analysis approach, this thesis aims to study how news media report on male and female victims of fatal domestic violence. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the news media Aftonbladet in its news reporting contributes to the stigmatisation of female and male victims of fatal domestic violence. And how Aftonbladet chooses to assign blame in the crimes, to see how they view masculinity and femininity. The study aims to contribute to understand whether Aftonbladet promotes or inhibits gender equality in society, stigmatisation around the genders and whether they contribute to patriarchal ideas.  In order to answer the research questions, eleven articles between 2016 and 2023 were analysed. The results show that male victims are referred to in an impersonal way where the female offender is the focus of the articles. The male victims are also assigned guilt in the crime through the attributes they are assigned and how they are represented before and during the murders where they abused the woman, which is used as justification for the assignment of guilt. Thus, Aftonbladet does not contribute to the stigmatisation of male victims and promotes gender equality in society. The result of the female victims shows that they are assigned attributes that are personal, thus giving the reader a "we" feeling. Because of this, female victims do not receive an attribution of guilt in crime. However, this means that Aftonbladet contributes to stigmatisation as the female victims are also given attributes such as weak and afraid and do not promote gender equality. However, Aftonbladet promotes gender equality because the female victims are given more room in the articles and the gender power structure is broken

    Volatilt samförstÄnd: HjÀlporganisationers erfarenheter av idéburet offentligt partnerskap i deras arbete med utsatta EU-medborgare

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    Over the last decade, IOPs – a framework for collaboration between municipalities and NGOs – have become a common way of organizing certain welfare services. One area where this institutional arrangement was used early on was in relation to EU/EEA citizens without right of residence. Here, IOPs have provided a “third-way” between a generous and restrictive interpretation of the target group’s social rights. The purpose of this article is to highlight, through interviews with representatives of NGOs, a field of problems related to IOPs. The article is based on case descriptions of IOPs in three municipalities - Gothenburg, Lund and Malmö. Based on these, we argue that IOPs entail a significant volatility in that IOP form establishes a precarious institutional status for certain forms of social work, making these increasingly dependent on local power relations and developments.Under det senaste decenniet har idĂ©burna offentliga partnerskap (IOP) – ett ramverk för samverkan mellan kommuner och idĂ©burna organisationer – blivit ett allt vanligare sĂ€tt att tillhandahĂ„lla vĂ€lfĂ€rdsinsatser. Ett omrĂ„de dĂ€r samverkansformen anvĂ€ndes tidigt var i arbetet med sĂ„ kallade utsatta EU/EES-medborgare. HĂ€r har IOP inneburit en tredje vĂ€g mellan en generös respektive restriktiv tolkning av mĂ„lgruppens rĂ€ttigheter. Syftet med denna artikel Ă€r att genom djupintervjuer med representanter för idĂ©burna organisationer belysa ett fĂ€lt av problematiker som uppstĂ„r genom lokala IOP. Artikeln bygger pĂ„ fallbeskrivningar av IOP i tre kommuner – Göteborg, Lund och Malmö. UtifrĂ„n dessa argumenterar vi för att ramverket medför en pĂ„taglig volatilitet som pĂ„verkar den idĂ©burna partens handlingsutrymme: IOP-formen etablerar en oförmedlad konjunkturkĂ€nslighet för socialt arbete som Ă€r direkt beroende av lokala maktförhĂ„llanden och hĂ€ndelseutvecklingar

    Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention Therapy in Children Up To 9 Years of Age: Protocol for a Cluster-Randomized Trial Study

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    BackgroundSeasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the sub-Sahel region in sub-Saharan Africa for preventing malaria in children 3 months old to younger than 5 years. Since 2016, the Malian National Malaria Control Program has deployed SMC countrywide during its high malaria transmission season at a rate of 4 monthly cycles annually. The standard SMC regimen includes sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus amodiaquine (AQ). Resistance against SP is suspected to be rising across West Africa; therefore, assessing the effectiveness of an alternative antimalarial drug for SMC is needed to provide a second-line regimen when it is ultimately needed. It is not well understood whether SMC effectively prevents malaria in children aged 5 years or older. ObjectiveThe primary goal of the study is to compare 2 SMC regimens (SP-AQ and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine [DHA-PQ]) in preventing uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children 3 months to 9 years old. Secondly, we will assess the possible use of DHA-PQ as an alternative SMC drug in areas where resistance to SP or AQ may increase following intensive use. MethodsThe study design is a 3-arm cluster-randomized design comparing the SP-AQ and DHA-PQ arms in 2 age groups (younger than 5 years and 5-9 years) and a control group for children aged 5-9 years. Standard SMC (SP-AQ) for children younger than 5 years was provided to the control arm, while SMC with SP-AQ was delivered to children aged 3 months to 9 years (arm 2), and SMC with DHA-PQ will be implemented in study arm 3 for children up to 9 years of age. The study was performed in Mali’s Koulikoro District, a rural area in southwest Mali with historically high malaria transmission rates. The study’s primary outcome is P falciparum incidence for 2 SMC regimens in children up to 9 years of age. Should DHA-PQ provide an acceptable alternative to SP-AQ, a plausible second-line prevention option would be available in the event of SP resistance or drug supply shortages. A significant byproduct of this effort included bolstering district health information systems for rapid identification of severe malaria cases. ResultsThe study began on July 1, 2019. Through November 2022, a total of 4556 children 3 months old to younger than 5 years were enrolled. Data collection ended in spring 2023, and the findings are expected to be published later in early 2024. ConclusionsRoutine evaluation of antimalarial drugs is needed to establish appropriate SMC age targets. The study goals here may impact public health policy and provide alternative therapies in the event of drug shortages or resistance. Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT04149106, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04149106 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID)DERR1-10.2196/5166

    Digital tools in preschool : A qualitative study on preschool teachers' approach to their use of digital tools

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    Vi lever idag i ett digitalt samhĂ€lle som stĂ€ndigt utvecklas inom digitaliseringen, ett mĂ„l i lĂ€roplanen för förskolan Ă€r att ge barnen möjlighet att utveckla förstĂ„else för den digitalisering som barnen möter i vardagen. Syftet med denna studie Ă€r att undersöka vilket förhĂ„llningssĂ€tt förskollĂ€rare har till sitt anvĂ€ndande av digitala verktyg. Studien utgĂ„r frĂ„n TPACKs ramverk dĂ€r de tre kunskapsomrĂ„dena teknisk kunskap, pedagogisk kunskap och innehĂ„lls kunskap behöver samverka för att skapa bĂ€sta möjliga förutsĂ€ttning för att integrera teknik i undervisningen pĂ„ ett meningsfullt sĂ€tt. Semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts med nio förskollĂ€rare frĂ„n tvĂ„ olika kommuner. Studiens resultat visar att samtliga förskollĂ€rare jobbar med digitala verktyg inom verksamheten, men att detta sker i olika utstrĂ€ckningar pĂ„ grund av tillgĂ€ngligt digitala resurser. Även tid för utveckling och utbildning gör att anvĂ€ndandet av digitala verktyg i undervisningen ser olika ut. FörskollĂ€rare lyfter betydelsen av att vara en nĂ€rvarande pedagog i anvĂ€ndandet av digitala verktyg tillsammans med barnen. De uttrycker Ă€ven vikten av att ha ett kritiskt förhĂ„llningssĂ€tt kring digitalisering. Resultatet diskuteras i förhĂ„llande till tidigare forskning. Denna studie Ă€r ett bidrag till en ökad kunskap om hur förskollĂ€rare förhĂ„ller sig till anvĂ€ndandet av digitala verktyg och hur anvĂ€ndningen och förutsĂ€ttningar till anvĂ€ndandet kan skilja sig Ă„t pĂ„ olika förskolor.  

    Bemötande av anhöriga i samband med dödsfall : En allmÀn litteraturöversikt ur ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv

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    Background: In the event of a death, relatives may experience several different emotions. Previous research showed that relatives experienced that it was important to be given sufficient information in the event of death, and that the treatment had a clear impact on relatives’ feelings. In order to achieve this treatment, nurses were required to provide respectful treatment where the information was adapted to the needs of each individual relative, for a safer experience for everyone. Aim: To illuminate nurses’ experiences of the treatment of relatives in connection with deaths in inpatient care. Method: In the degree project, a general literature review has been used. Twelve articles were analyzed in total, of which nine qualitative, two quantitative and one mixed method. Results: Five different themes could be produced based on the results of the articles, which are Obstacles that affects the treatment, The importance of the relationship in the treatment, The importance of information in the treatment, Supporting relatives in case of death and Follow-up of the grief. Conclusion: In order for relatives to be able to receive appropriate treatment, it is necessary that nurses’ conditions are developed. This can be done by managing various obstacles regarding surroundings, time, personnel and competence
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