20 research outputs found

    Decoding the genetic relationship between Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes: potential risk variants and future direction for North Africa

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    IntroductionAlzheimer’s disease (AD) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are both age-associated diseases. Identification of shared genes could help develop early diagnosis and preventive strategies. Although genetic background plays a crucial role in these diseases, we noticed an underrepresentation tendency of North African populations in omics studies.Materials and methodsFirst, we conducted a comprehensive review of genes and pathways shared between T2D and AD through PubMed. Then, the function of the identified genes and variants was investigated using annotation tools including PolyPhen2, RegulomeDB, and miRdSNP. Pathways enrichment analyses were performed with g:Profiler and EnrichmentMap. Next, we analyzed variant distributions in 16 worldwide populations using PLINK2, R, and STRUCTURE software. Finally, we performed an inter-ethnic comparison based on the minor allele frequency of T2D-AD common variants.ResultsA total of 59 eligible papers were included in our study. We found 231 variants and 363 genes shared between T2D and AD. Variant annotation revealed six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with a high pathogenic score, three SNPs with regulatory effects on the brain, and six SNPs with potential effects on miRNA-binding sites. The miRNAs affected were implicated in T2D, insulin signaling pathways, and AD. Moreover, replicated genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to plasma protein binding, positive regulation of amyloid fibril deposition, microglia activation, and cholesterol metabolism. Multidimensional screening performed based on the 363 shared genes showed that main North African populations are clustered together and are divergent from other worldwide populations. Interestingly, our results showed that 49 SNP associated with T2D and AD were present in North African populations. Among them, 11 variants located in DNM3, CFH, PPARG, ROHA, AGER, CLU, BDNF1, CST9, and PLCG1 genes display significant differences in risk allele frequencies between North African and other populations.ConclusionOur study highlighted the complexity and the unique molecular architecture of North African populations regarding T2D-AD shared genes. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of T2D-AD shared genes and ethnicity-specific investigation studies for a better understanding of the link behind these diseases and to develop accurate diagnoses using personalized genetic biomarkers

    A map of copy number variations in the Tunisian population: a valuable tool for medical genomics in North Africa

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    Abstract Copy number variation (CNV) is considered as the most frequent type of structural variation in the human genome. Some CNVs can act on human phenotype diversity, encompassing rare Mendelian diseases and genomic disorders. The North African populations remain underrepresented in public genetic databases in terms of single-nucleotide variants as well as for larger genomic mutations. In this study, we present the first CNV map for a North African population using the Affymetrix Genome-Wide SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) array 6.0 array genotyping intensity data to call CNVs in 102 Tunisian healthy individuals. Two softwares, PennCNV and Birdsuite, were used to call CNVs in order to provide reliable data. Subsequent bioinformatic analyses were performed to explore their features and patterns. The CNV map of the Tunisian population includes 1083 CNVs spanning 61.443 Mb of the genome. The CNV length ranged from 1.017 kb to 2.074 Mb with an average of 56.734 kb. Deletions represent 57.43% of the identified CNVs, while duplications and the mixed loci are less represented. One hundred and three genes disrupted by CNVs are reported to cause 155 Mendelian diseases/phenotypes. Drug response genes were also reported to be affected by CNVs. Data on genes overlapped by deletions and duplications segments and the sequence properties in and around them also provided insights into the functional and health impacts of CNVs. These findings represent valuable clues to genetic diversity and personalized medicine in the Tunisian population as well as in the ethnically similar populations from North Africa

    Using KASP technique to screen LRRK2 G2019S mutation in a large Tunisian cohort

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    Abstract Background In North African populations, G2019S mutation in LRRK2 gene, encoding for the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2, is the most prevalent mutation linked to familial and sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD). Early detection of G2019S by fast genetic testing is very important to guide PD’s diagnosis and support patients and their family caregivers for better management of their life according to disease’s evolution. Methods In our study, a genetic PD’s diagnosis tool was developed for large scale genotyping using Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) technology. We investigated G2019S’s frequency in 250 Tunisian PD patients and 218 controls. Results We found that 33.6% of patients and 1.3% of controls were carriers. Demographic characteristics of patients with G2019S had no differences compared with non-carrier patients. Thereby, we could emphasize the implication of G2019S in PD without any distinctive demographic factors in the studied cohort. Sixty patients out of 250 were genotyped using Taqman assay and Sanger sequencing. The genotyping results were found to be concordant with KASP assay. Conclusions The G2019S mutation frequency in our cohort was similar to that reported in previous studies. Comparing to Taqman assay and Sanger sequencing, KASP was shown to be a reliable, time and cost effective genotyping assay for routine G2019S screening in genetic testing laboratories

    Identification of novel pathogenic MSH2 mutation and new DNA repair genes variants: investigation of a Tunisian Lynch syndrome family with discordant twins

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    International audienceBackground: Lynch syndrome (LS) is a highly penetrant inherited cancer predisposition syndrome, characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance and germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Despite several genetic variations that have been identified in various populations, the penetrance is highly variable and the reasons for this have not been fully elucidated. This study investigates whether, besides pathogenic mutations, environment and low penetrance genetic risk factors may result in phenotype modification in a Tunisian LS family. Patients and methods: A Tunisian family with strong colorectal cancer (CRC) history that fulfill the Amsterdam I criteria for the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome was proposed for oncogenetic counseling. The index case was a man, diagnosed at the age of 33 years with CRC. He has a monozygotic twin diagnosed at the age of 35 years with crohn disease. Forty-seven years-old was the onset age of his paternal uncle withCRC. An immunohistochemical (IHC) labeling for the four proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2) of the MisMatchRepair (MMR) system was performed for the index case. A targeted sequencing of MSH2, MLH1 and a panel of 85 DNA repair genes was performed for the index case and for his unaffected father. Results: The IHC results showed a loss of MSH2 but not MLH1, MSH6 and PMS2 proteins expression. Genomic DNA screening, by targeted DNA repair genes sequencing, revealed an MSH2 pathogenic mutation (c.1552C>T; p.Q518X), confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This mutation was suspected to be a causal mutation associated to the loss of MSH2 expression and it was found in first and second degree relatives. The index case has smoking and alcohol consumption habits. Moreover, he harbors extensive genetic variations in other DNA-repair genes not shared with his unaffected father. Conclusion: In our investigated Tunisian family, we confirmed the LS by IHC, molecular and in silico investigations. We identified a novel pathogenic mutation described for the first time in Tunisia. These results come enriching the previously reported pathogenic mutations in LS families. Our study brings new arguments to the interpretation of MMR expression pattern and highlights new risk modifiers genes eventually implicated in CRC. Twins discordance reported in this work underscore that disease penetrance could be influenced by both genetic background and environmental factors

    Cytogenetic and molecular diagnosis of Fanconi anemia revealed two hidden phenotypes: Disorder of sex development and cerebro‐oculo‐facio‐skeletal syndrome

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    International audienceBackground: Several studies have shown a high rate of consanguinity and endogamy in North African populations. As a result, the frequency of autosomal recessive diseases is relatively high in the region with the co-occurrence of two or more diseases.Methods: We report here on a consanguineous Libyan family whose child was initially diagnosed as presenting Fanconi anemia (FA) with uncommon skeletal deformities. The chromosome breakage test has been performed using mitomycin C (MMC) while molecular analysis was performed by a combined approach of linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing.Results: Cytogenetic analyses showed that the karyotype of the female patient is 46,XY suggesting the diagnosis of a disorder of sex development (DSD). By looking at the genetic etiology of FA and DSD, we have identified p.[Arg798*];[Arg798*] mutation in FANCJ (OMIM #605882) gene responsible for FA and p.[Arg108*];[Arg1497Trp] in EFCAB6 (Gene #64800) gene responsible for DSD. In addition, we have incidentally discovered a novel mutation p.[Gly1372Arg];[Gly1372Arg] in the ERCC6 (CSB) (OMIM #609413) gene responsible for COFS that might explain the atypical severe skeletal deformities.Conclusion: The co-occurrence of clinical and overlapping genetic heterogeneous entities should be taken into consideration for better molecular and genetic counselin

    Multiallelic rare variants support an oligogenic origin of sudden cardiac death in the young

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    International audienceUngeklĂ€rte plötzliche TodesfĂ€lle bei jungen Menschen sind in den meisten FĂ€llen kardiovaskulĂ€rer Natur. Struktur- und Leitungsstörungen auf Basis von kardialen Gendefekten können im Zusammenspiel dem plötzlichen Herztod zugrunde liegen. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird die klinische und ausfĂŒhrliche genetische Untersuchung einer tunesischen Familie mit plötzlichem Herztod junger Angehöriger beschrieben. Mit dem Ziel, die familiĂ€re genetische Basis des plötzlichen Herztods zu identifizieren, wurden eine Exomsequenzierung („whole exome sequencing [WES]“), ein Read-depth-copy-number-variation(CNV)-Screening und eine Segregationsanalyse durchgefĂŒhrt. Sechs Ă€ußerst seltene pathogene heterozygote Varianten in den Genen OBSCN, RYR2, DSC2, AKAP9, CACNA1C, RBM20 und eine homozygote Spleicingvariante im TECRL-Gen, die mit einem oligogenischen Vererbungsmodell vereinbar waren, wurden identifiziert. Die CNV-Analyse ergab keine ursĂ€chliche CNV im Einklang mit dem FamilienphĂ€notyp. Insgesamt deuten die Ergebnisse stark auf einen kumulativen Effekt heterozygoter Missense-Varianten als Krankheitsursache hin, wodurch sich der höhere Schweregrad der Erkrankung unter den Nachkommen erklĂ€rt. Die vorliegende Studie bestĂ€tigt erneut die KomplexitĂ€t der Vererbung des plötzlichen Herztods und unterstreicht den Nutzen der familienbasierten WES und Segregationsanalyse bei der Identifikation familienspezifischer Mutationen in verschiedenen kardialen genetischen Mechanismen.Unexplained sudden death in the young is cardiovascular in most cases. Structural and conduction defects in cardiac-related genes can conspire to underlie sudden cardiac death. Here we report a clinical investigation and an extensive genetic assessment of a Tunisian family with sudden cardiac death in young members. In order to identify the family-genetic basis of sudden cardiac death, we performed Whole Exome Sequencing (WES), read depth copy-number-variation (CNV) screening and segregation analysis. We identify 6 ultra-rare pathogenic heterozygous variants in OBSCN, RYR2, DSC2, AKAP9, CACNA1C and RBM20 genes, and one homozygous splicing variant in TECRL gene consistent with an oligogenic model of inheritance. CNV analysis did not reveal any causative CNV consistent with the family phenotype. Overall, our results are highly suggestive for a cumulative effect of heterozygous missense variants as disease causation and to account for a greater disease severity among offspring. Our study further confirms the complexity of the inheritance of sudden cardiac death and highlights the utility of family-based WES and segregation analysis in the identification of family specific mutations within different cardiac genes pathways

    Identification of a CDH12 potential candidate genetic variant for an autosomal dominant form of transgrediens and progrediens palmoplantar keratoderma in a Tunisian family

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    International audienceMolecular diagnosis of rare inherited palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) is still challenging. We investigated at the clinical and genetic level a consanguineous Tunisian family presenting an autosomal dominant atypical form of transgrediens and progrediens PPK to better characterize this ultrarare disease and to identify its molecular etiology. Whole-exome sequencing (WES), filtering strategies, and bioinformatics analysis have been achieved. Clinical investigation and follow up over 13 years of this Tunisian family with three siblings formerly diagnosed as an autosomal recessive form of Mal de Melela-like conducted us to reconsider its initial phenotype. Indeed, the three patients presented clinical features that overlap both Mal de Meleda and progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma (PSEK). The mode of inheritance was also reconsidered, since the mother, initially classified as unaffected, exhibited a similar expression of the disease. WES analysis showed the absence of potentially functional rare variants in known PPKs or PSEK-related genes. Results revealed a novel heterozygous nonsynonymous variant in cadherin-12 gene (CDH12, NM_004061, c.1655C > A, p.Thr552Asn) in all affected family members. This variant is absent in dbSNP and in 50 in-house control exomes. In addition, in silico analysis of the mutated 3D domain structure predicted that this variant would result in cadherin-12 protein destabilization and thermal instability. Functional annotation and biological network construction data provide further supporting evidence for the potential role of CDH12 in the maintenance of skin integrity. Taken together, these results suggest that CDH12 gene is a potential candidate gene for an atypical presentation of an autosomal dominant form of transgrediens and progrediens PPK

    Insights from Molecular Characterization of Adult Patients of Families with Multigenerational Diabetes Mellitus

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    Multigenerational diabetes of the adulthood is a mostly overlooked entity, simplistically comprised in the large basin of type 2 diabetes. The general aim we are pursuing in last years is to unravel the genetic causes of such form of diabetes. Identifying among families with multigenerational diabetes those carrying mutations in known monogenic diabetes genes is the first step to then concentrate on remaining pedigrees where to unravel new diabetogenes.Targeted Next Generation Sequencing of 27 monogenic diabetes-genes has been carried out in 55 family probands and identified mutations verified among their relatives by Sanger sequencing.Nine variants (in 8 probands) survived our filtering/prioritization strategy. After likelihood of causality assessment by established guidelines, 6 variants were classified as "pathogenetic/likely pathogenetic" and 2 as "of uncertain significance".Combining present with our previous data on the six genes causing the most common forms of maturity-onset diabetes of the young allows inferring that 23.6% families with multigenerational diabetes of the adulthood carry mutations in known monogenic diabetes-genes.Our findings indicate that the genetic background of hyperglycemia is unrecognized in the vast majority of families with multigenerational diabetes of the adulthood. These families now become the object of further research aimed at unraveling new diabetogenes

    Germline copy number variations in BRCA1/2 negative families: Role in the molecular etiology of hereditary breast cancer in Tunisia.

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    Hereditary breast cancer accounts for 5-10% of all breast cancer cases. So far, known genetic risk factors account for only 50% of the breast cancer genetic component and almost a quarter of hereditary cases are carriers of pathogenic mutations in BRCA1/2 genes. Hence, the genetic basis for a significant fraction of familial cases remains unsolved. This missing heritability may be explained in part by Copy Number Variations (CNVs). We herein aimed to evaluate the contribution of CNVs to hereditary breast cancer in Tunisia. Whole exome sequencing was performed for 9 BRCA negative cases with a strong family history of breast cancer and 10 matched controls. CNVs were called using the ExomeDepth R-package and investigated by pathway analysis and web-based bioinformatic tools. Overall, 483 CNVs have been identified in breast cancer patients. Rare CNVs affecting cancer genes were detected, of special interest were those disrupting APC2, POU5F1, DOCK8, KANSL1, TMTC3 and the mismatch repair gene PMS2. In addition, common CNVs known to be associated with breast cancer risk have also been identified including CNVs on APOBECA/B, UGT2B17 and GSTT1 genes. Whereas those disrupting SULT1A1 and UGT2B15 seem to correlate with good clinical response to tamoxifen. Our study revealed new insights regarding CNVs and breast cancer risk in the Tunisian population. These findings suggest that rare and common CNVs may contribute to disease susceptibility. Those affecting mismatch repair genes are of interest and require additional attention since it may help to select candidates for immunotherapy leading to better outcomes

    Whole Exome Sequencing allows the identification of two novel groups of Xeroderma pigmentosum in Tunisia, XP-D and XP-E: Impact on molecular diagnosis

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    International audienceBACKGROUND: Skin cancers (SC) are complex diseases that develop from complex combinations of genetic and environmental risk factors. One of the most severe and rare genetic diseases predisposing to SC is the Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) syndrome.OBJECTIVES: First, to identify the genetic etiology of XP and to better classify affected patients. Second, to provide early molecular diagnosis for pre-symptomatic patient and finally to offer genetic counseling for related individuals.METHODS: Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) and Run Of Homozygosity (ROH) were performed for two patients belonging to two different multiplex consanguineous families. The identified mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and researched in ten Tunisian families including a total of 25 affected individuals previously suspected as having XP group V (XP-V) form. All patients had mild dermatological manifestations, absence of neurological abnormalities and late onset of skin tumors.RESULTS: Screening for functional variations showed the presence of the ERCC2 p.Arg683Gln in XP14KA-2 patient and a novel mutation, DDB2 p. (Lys381Argfs*2), in XP51-MAH-1 patient. Sanger sequencing and familial segregation showed that the ERCC2 mutation is present at a homozygous state in 10 affected patients belonging to 3 families. The second mutation in DDB2, is present at a homozygous state in 5 affected cases belonging to the same family. These two mutations are absent in the remaining 10 affected patients. The ERCC2 c.2048G > A mutation is present in a medium ROH region (class B) suggesting that it mostly arises from ancient relatedness within individuals. However, the c.1138delG DDB2 mutation is present in a large ROH region (class C) suggesting that it arises from recent relatedness.CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study that identifies XP-D and XP-E complementation groups in Tunisia. These two groups are very rare and under-diagnosed in the world and were not reported in North Africa