51 research outputs found

    Magnetic frustration, phase competition, and the magnetoelectric effect in NdFe3(BO3)4

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    PACS numbers: 75.85.+t, 75.25. j, 75.30.Et, 78.70.Ck.-- et al.We present an element selective resonant magnetic x-ray scattering study of NdFe3(BO3)4 as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Our measurements show that the magnetic order of the Nd sublattice is induced by the Fe spin order. When a magnetic field is applied parallel to the hexagonal basal plane, the helicoidal spin order is suppressed and a collinear ordering, where the moments are forced to align in a direction perpendicular to the applied magnetic field, is stabilized. This result excludes a noncollinear spin order as the origin of the magnetically induced electric polarization in this compound. Instead our data imply that magnetic frustration results in a phase competition, which is the origin of the magnetoelectric response.This work was supported by the DFG through the Emmy Noether Programme (Grant No. GE1647/2-1) and the European Community’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant No. 226716.Peer reviewe

    Electronic depth profiles with atomic layer resolution from resonant soft x-ray reflectivity

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    The analysis of x-ray reflectivity data from artificial heterostructures usually relies on the homogeneity of optical properties of the constituent materials. However, when the x-ray energy is tuned to an absorption edge, this homogeneity no longer exists. Within the same material, spatial regions containing elements at resonance will have optical properties very different from regions without resonating sites. In this situation, models assuming homogeneous optical properties throughout the material can fail to describe the reflectivity adequately. As we show here, resonant soft x-ray reflectivity is sensitive to these variations, even though the wavelength is typically large as compared to the atomic distances over which the optical properties vary. We have therefore developed a scheme for analyzing resonant soft x-ray reflectivity data, which takes the atomic structure of a material into account by "slicing" it into atomic planes with characteristic optical properties. Using LaSrMnO4 as an example, we discuss both the theoretical and experimental implications of this approach. Our analysis not only allows to determine important structural information such as interface terminations and stacking of atomic layers, but also enables to extract depth-resolved spectroscopic information with atomic resolution, thus enhancing the capability of the technique to study emergent phenomena at surfaces and interfaces.Comment: Completely overhauled with respect to the previous version due to peer revie

    High-Field Pauli-Limiting Behavior and Strongly Enhanced Upper Critical Magnetic Fields near the Transition Temperature of an Arsenic-Deficient LaO_0.9F_0.1FeAs_(1-\delta) Superconductor

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    We report upper critical field B_c2(T) data for disordered (arsenic-deficient) LaO_0.9F_0.1FeAs_(1-delta) in a wide temperature and magnetic field range up to 47 T. Because of the large linear slope of Bc2 about -5.4 T/K to -6.6 T/K near Tc = 28.5 K the T-dependence of the in-plane Bc2(T) shows a flattening near 23 K above 30 T which points to Pauli-limited behavior with Bc2(0) about 63-68 T. Our results are discussed in terms of disorder effects within conventional and unconventional superconducting pairings.Comment: Change of the title as suggested by the Editors, one author added, typos corrected, references updated, final published versio

    Magnetic frustration, phase competition and the magneto-electric effect in NdFe3(BO3)4

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    We present an element selective resonant magnetic x-ray scattering study of NdFe3(BO3)4 as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Our measurements show that the magnetic order of the Nd sublattice is induced by the Fe spin order. When a magnetic field is applied parallel to the hexagonal basal plane, the helicoidal spin order is suppressed and a collinear ordering, where the moments are forced to align in a direction perpendicular to the applied magnetic field, is stabilized. This result excludes a non-collinear spin order as the origin of the magnetically induced electric polarization in this compound. Instead our data imply that magnetic frustration results in a phase competition, which is the origin of the magneto-electric response.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    75^{75}As NMR studies of superconducting LaO0.9_{0.9}F0.1_{0.1}FeAs

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    We have performed 75As Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements on aligned powders of the new LaO0.9F0.1FeAs superconductor. In the normal state, we find a strong temperature dependence of the spin shift and Korringa behavior of the spin lattice relaxation rate. In the superconducting state, we find evidence for line nodes in the superconducting gap and spin-singlet pairing. Our measurements reveal a strong anisotropy of the spin lattice relaxation rate, which suggest that superconducting vortices contribute to the relaxation rate when the field is parallel to the c-axis but not for the perpendicular direction

    Transition from a uni- to a bimodal interfacial charge distribution in LaAlO 3 / SrTiO 3 upon cooling

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    We present a combined resonant soft X-ray reflectivity and electric transport study of LaAlO 3/SrTiO 3 field effect devices. The depth profiles with atomic layer resolution that are obtained from the resonant reflectivity reveal a pronounced temperature dependence of the two-dimensional electron liquid at the LaAlO 3/SrTiO 3 interface. At room temperature the corresponding electrons are located close to the interface, extending down to 4 unit cells into the SrTiO 3 substrate. Upon cooling, however, these interface electrons assume a bimodal depth distribution: They spread out deeper into the SrTiO 3 and split into two distinct parts, namely one close to the interface with a thickness of about 4 unit cells and another centered around 9 unit cells from the interface. The results are consistent with theoretical predictions based on oxygen vacancies at the surface of the LaAlO 3 film and support the notion of a complex interplay between structural and electronic degrees of freedom. © 2020, The Author(s)

    Universal linear-temperature dependence of static magnetic susceptibility in iron-pnictides

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    A universal linear-temperature dependence of the uniform magnetic susceptibility has been observed in the nonmagnetic normal state of iron-pnictides. This non-Pauli and non-Curie-Weiss-like paramagnetic behavior cannot be understood within a pure itinerant picture. We argue that it results from the existence of a wide antiferromagnetic fluctuation window in which the local spin-density-wave correlations exist but the global directional order has not been established yet.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Rare earth magnetism in CeFeAsO: A single crystal study

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    Single crystals of CeFeAsO, large enough to study the anisotropy of the magnetic properties, were grown by an optimized Sn-flux technique. The high quality of our single crystals is apparent from the highest residual resistivity ratio, RRR = 12, reported among undoped RFeAsO compounds (R=rare earth) as well as sharp anomalies in resistivity, specific heat, C(T), and thermal expansion at the different phase transitions. The magnetic susceptibility chi(T) presents a large easy-plane anisotropy consistent with the lowest crystal electric field doublet having a dominant Gamma_6 character. Curie-Weiss like susceptibilities for magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the crystallographic c-axis do not reveal an influence of a staggered field on the Ce site induced by magnetic ordering of the Fe. Furthermore, the standard signatures for antiferromagnetic order of Ce at T_N = 3.7 K observed in chi(T) and C(T) are incompatible with a Zeeman splitting Delta = 10 K of the CEF ground state doublet at low temperature due to the Fe-magnetic order as previously proposed. Our results can be reconciled with the earlier observation by assuming a comparatively stronger effect of the Ce-Ce exchange leading to a reduction of this Zeeman splitting below 15 K.Comment: 15 pages, 6 figures, added section on magn. susceptibilit

    Valence-state reflectometry of complex oxide heterointerfaces

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    Emergent phenomena in transition-metal-oxide heterostructures such as interface superconductivity and magnetism have been attributed to electronic reconstruction, which, however, is difficult to detect and characterise. Here we overcome the associated difficulties to simultaneously address the electronic degrees of freedom and distinguish interface from bulk effects by implementing a novel approach to resonant X-ray reflectivity (RXR). Our RXR study of the chemical and valance profiles along the polar (001) direction of a LaCoO3 film on NdGaO3 reveals a pronounced valence-state reconstruction from Co3+ in the bulk to Co2+ at the surface, with an areal density close to 0.5 Co2+ ions per unit cell. An identical film capped with polar (001) LaAlO3 maintains the Co3+ valence over its entire thickness. We interpret this as evidence for electronic reconstruction in the uncapped film, involving the transfer of 0.5e‚ąí per unit cell to the subsurface CoO2 layer at its LaO-terminated polar surface
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