2 research outputs found

    Mutational analysis of the PLCE1 gene in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome

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    International audienceBackground: Mutations in the PLCE1 gene encoding phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCε1) have been recently described in patients with early-onset nephrotic syndrome (NS) and diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS). In addition, two cases of PLCE1 mutations associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and later NS onset have been reported. Methods: In order to better assess the spectrum of phenotypes associated with PLCE1 mutations, we performed mutational analysis in a worldwide cohort of 139 patients (95 familial cases belonging to 68 families and 44 sporadic cases) with steroid-resistant NS presenting at a median age of 23.0 months (range 0-373). Results: We identified homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in 33% (8/24) of DMS cases. PLCE1 mutations were found in 8% (6/78) of FSGS cases without NPHS2 mutations. Nine were novel mutations. No clear genotype-phenotype correlation was observed, with either truncating or missense mutations detected in both DMS and FSGS, and leading to a similar renal evolution. Surprisingly, 3 unaffected and unrelated individuals were also found to carry the homozygous mutations identified in their respective families. Conclusion: PLCE1 is a major gene of DMS and is mutated in a non-negligible proportion of FSGS cases without NPHS2 mutations. Although we did not identify additional variants in 19 candidate genes (16 other PLC genes, BRAF, IQGAP1 and NPHS1), we speculate that other modifier genes or environmental factors may play a role in the renal phenotype variability observed in individuals bearing PLCE1 mutations. This observation needs to be considered in the genetic counselling offered to patients

    Helicobacter pylori VacA Cytotoxin: A Probe for a Clathrin-independent and Cdc42-dependent Pinocytic Pathway Routed to Late Endosomes

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    The vacuolating cytotoxin VacA is a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium responsible for gastroduodenal ulcers and cancer. VacA associates with lipid rafts, is endocytosed, and reaches the late endocytic compartment where it induces vacuolation. We have investigated the endocytic and intracellular trafficking pathways used by VacA, in HeLa and gastric AGS cells. We report here that VacA was first bound to plasma-membrane domains localized above F-actin structures that were controlled by the Rac1 GTPase. VacA was subsequently pinocytosed by a clathrin-independent mechanism into cell peripheral early endocytic compartments lacking caveolin 1, the Rab5 effector early endosomes antigen-1 (EEA1) and transferrin. These compartments took up fluid-phase (as evidenced by the accumulation of fluorescent dextran) and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). VacA pinocytosis was controlled by Cdc42 and did not require cellular tyrosine kinases, dynamin 2, ADP-ribosylating factor 6, or RhoA GTPase activities. VacA was subsequently routed to EEA1-sorting endosomes and then sorted to late endosomes. During all these different endocytic steps, VacA was continuously associated with detergent resistant membrane domains. From these results we propose that VacA might be a valuable probe to study raft-associated molecules, pinocytosed by a clathrin-independent mechanism, and routed to the degradative compartment