532 research outputs found

    Soft Copy Digital Mammography

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    Thymic Metastasis in Breast Cancer: A Case Report

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    A malignant tumor is generally believed to be very unlikely to metastasize to the thymus. Only three cases of thymic metastases have been reported so far in the medical literature. We report here a rare case of metastatic breast cancer to the thymus, which was detected by CT and PET scanning, and the metastasis was also confirmed by video-assisted thoracic surgery biopsy. Recognition of an unusual breast cancer metastasis, such as to the thymus, as well as the usual patterns of breast cancer metastasis will facilitate an accurate, prompt diagnosis and its appropriate treatment

    Association between harmful alcohol use and periodontal status according to gender and smoking

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    BACKGROUND: the aim of this study is to assess the association of harmful alcohol use based on the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) score with periodontal status according to gender and smoking in a representative sample of Korean adults. METHODS: This study analyzed 5,291 participants older than 19 years whose data of harmful alcohol use and periodontal status were available. Harmful alcohol use was defined by the WHO guidelines for the administration of AUDIT. The periodontal status was assessed by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with adjustment for socio-demographic variables, oral and general health behavior, oral health status and systemic conditions. All analyses considered a complex sampling design, and multivariate analysis was also performed in the subgroups. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a marginal association between harmful alcohol use and higher CPI in the total sample. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of harmful alcohol use was 1.16 (0.97 to 1.38) for higher CPI. Higher CPI was significantly associated with harmful alcohol use in men (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03-1.60) and non-smokers (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.06-1.57). CONCLUSION: Periodontal status is significantly associated with harmful alcohol use in men and non-smokers in a representative sample of Korean adults

    Simultaneous Mapping of Pan and Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Real-Time Image-Guided Surgery

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    The resection of regional lymph nodes in the basin of a primary tumor is of paramount importance in surgical oncology. Although sentinel lymph node mapping is now the standard of care in breast cancer and melanoma, over 20% of patients require a completion lymphadenectomy. Yet, there is currently no technology available that can image all lymph nodes in the body in real time, or assess both the sentinel node and all nodes simultaneously. In this study, we report an optical fluorescence technology that is capable of simultaneous mapping of pan lymph nodes (PLNs) and sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in the same subject. We developed near-infrared fluorophores, which have fluorescence emission maxima either at 700 nm or at 800 nm. One was injected intravenously for identification of all regional lymph nodes in a basin, and the other was injected locally for identification of the SLN. Using the dual-channel FLARE intraoperative imaging system, we could identify and resect all PLNs and SLNs simultaneously. The technology we describe enables simultaneous, real-time visualization of both PLNs and SLNs in the same subject

    TRAIL sensitize MDR cells to MDR-related drugs by down-regulation of P-glycoprotein through inhibition of DNA-PKcs/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and activation of caspases

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The development of new modulator possessing high efficacy, low toxicity and high selectivity is a pivotal approach to overcome P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer treatment. In this study, we suggest a new molecular mechanism that TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) down-regulates P-glycoprotein (P-gp) through inhibition of DNA-PKcs/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and activation of caspases and thereby sensitize MDR cells to MDR-related drugs.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>MDR variants, CEM/VLB<sub>10-2</sub>, CEM/VLB<sub>55-8 </sub>and CEM/VLB<sub>100 </sub>cells, with gradually increased levels of P-gp derived from human lymphoblastic leukemia CEM cells, were gradually more susceptible to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity than parental CEM cells. The P-gp level of MDR variants was positively correlated with the levels of DNA-PKcs, pAkt, pGSK-3β and c-Myc as well as DR5 and negatively correlated with the level of c-FLIPs. Hypersensitivity of CEM/VLB<sub>100 </sub>cells to TRAIL was accompanied by the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway as well as the activation of initiator caspases. In addition, TRAIL-induced down-regulation of DNA-PKcs/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and c-FLIP and up-regulation of cell surface expression of death receptors were associated with the increased susceptibility to TRAIL of MDR cells. Moreover, TRAIL inhibited P-gp efflux function via caspase-3-dependent degradation of P-gp as well as DNA-PKcs and subsequently sensitized MDR cells to MDR-related drugs such as vinblastine and doxorubicin. We also found that suppression of DNA-PKcs by siRNA enhanced the susceptibility of MDR cells to vincristine as well as TRAIL via down-regulation of c-FLIP and P-gp expression and up-regulation of DR5.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>This study showed for the first time that the MDR variant of CEM cells was hypersensitive to TRAIL due to up-regulation of DR5 and concomitant down-regulation of c-FLIP, and degradation of P-gp and DNA-PKcs by activation of caspase-3 might be important determinants of TRAIL-induced sensitization of MDR cells to MDR-related drugs. Therefore, combination of TRAIL and chemotherapeutic drugs may be a good strategy for treatment of cancer with multidrug resistance.</p

    The Association of Maximum Body Weight on the Development of Type 2 Diabetes and Microvascular Complications: MAXWEL Study

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    Background: Obesity precedes the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the relationship between the magnitude and rate of weight gain to T2D development and complications, especially in non-White populations, has received less attention. Methods and Findings: We determined the association of rate and magnitude of weight gain to age at T2D diagnosis (AgeT2D), HbA1c at T2D diagnosis (HbA1cT2D), microalbuminuria, and diabetic retinopathy after adjusting for sex, BMI at age 20 years, lifestyles, family history of T2D and/or blood pressure and lipids in 2164 Korean subjects aged ≥30 years and newly diagnosed with diabetes. Body weight at age 20 years (Wt20y) was obtained by recall or from participants’ medical, school, or military records. Participants recalled their maximum weight (Wtmax) prior to T2D diagnosis and age at maximum weight (Agemax_wt). The rate of weight gain (Ratemax_wt) was calculated from magnitude of weight gain (ΔWt = Wtmax–Wt20y) divided by ΔTime (Agemax_wt –20 years). The mean Agemax_wt and AgeT2D were 41.5±10.9 years and 50.1±10.5 years, respectively. The Wt20y and Wtmax were 59.9±10.5 kg and 72.9±11.4 kg, respectively. The Ratemax_wt was 0.56±0.50 kg/year. After adjusting for risk factors, greater ΔWt and higher Ratemax_wt were significantly associated with earlier AgeT2D, higher HbA1cT2D after additional adjusting for AgeT2D, and microalbuminuria after further adjusting for HbA1cT2D and lipid profiles. Greater ΔWt and higher Ratemax_wt were also significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy. Conclusions: This finding supports public health recommendations to reduce the risk of T2D and its complications by preventing weight gain from early adulthood

    Site-directed mutagenesis of the amino acid residues in β-strand III [Val30-Val36] of d-amino acid aminotransferase of Bacillus sp. YM-1

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    AbstractThe β-strand III formed by amino acid residues Val30-Val36 is located across the active site of the thermostable d-amino acid aminotransferase (d-AAT) from thermophilic Bacillus sp. YM-1, and the odd-numbered amino acids (Tyr31, Val33, Lys35) in the strand are revealed to be directed toward the active site. Interestingly, Glu32 is also directed toward the active site. We first investigated the involvement of these amino acid residues in catalysis by alanine scanning mutagenesis. The Y31A and E32A mutant enzymes showed a marked decrease in kcat value, retaining less than 1% of the wild-type enzyme activity. The kcat values of V33A and K35A were changed slightly, but the Km of K35A for α-ketoglutarate was increased to 35.6 mM, compared to the Km value of 2.5 mM for the wild-type enzyme. These results suggested that the positive charge at Lys35 interacted electrostatically with the negative charge at the side chain of α-ketoglutarate. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Glu32 residue was conducted to demonstrate the role of this residue in detail. From the kinetic and spectral characteristics of the Glu32-substituted enzymes, the Glu32 residue seemed to interact with the positive charge at the Schiff base formed between the aldehyde group of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) and the ε-amino group of the Lys145 residue
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