76 research outputs found

    T Stage and Pretreatment Standardized Uptake Values Predict Tumor Recurrence With 5-Fraction SABR in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

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    Purpose: : Five-fraction stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) regimens are frequently used to treat centrally located early-stage non-small cell lung cancer or disease in the proximity of the chest wall as a means of optimizing tumor control and reducing treatment toxicity. However, increasing these SABR regimens to 5 fractions may reduce tumor control outcomes. We sought to identify the clinical parameters predictive of treatment failures with these 5-fraction courses. Methods: : Ninety patients with T1-2 non-small cell lung cancer were treated with 50 or 60 Gy in 5 fractions. Failure over time was modeled using cumulative incidences of local, regional, or distant failure, with death as a competing risk. Cox proportional hazards analysis for incidences of failure was performed to control for patient variables. Results: Of 90 patients, 24 of 53 patients with T1 tumors and 19 of 37 patients with T2 tumors received 50 Gy SABR, and the other 47 patients received 60 Gy. Two-year overall survival and progression-free survival for the whole cohort were 75.8% and 59.3%, respectively. Total SABR dose (50 vs 60 Gy) did not influence survival nor failure rates at 2 and 5 years. Within 2 years of treatment, 7.8% of all patients developed local failure. For all patient and tumor characteristics evaluated, only T stage and pretreatment positron emission tomography standardized uptake values served as predictors of local, regional, and distant failure at 2 and 5 years posttreatment on univariate and multivariable analysis. Conclusions: Five-fraction SABR provides excellent in-field control. T2 and high fluorodeoxyglucose uptake tumors have increased failure rates, suggesting the potential need for adjuvant therapies, which are being assessed in randomized phase 3 trials

    Higher Radiation Dose to the Immune Cells Correlates with Worse Tumor Control and Overall Survival in Patients with Stage III NSCLC: A Secondary Analysis of RTOG0617

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    Background: We hypothesized that the Effective radiation Dose to the Immune Cells (EDIC) in circulating blood is a significant factor for the treatment outcome in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: This is a secondary study of a phase III trial, NRG/RTOG 0617, in patients with stage III NSCLC treated with radiation-based treatment. The EDIC was computed as equivalent uniform dose to the entire blood based on radiation doses to all blood-containing organs, with consideration of blood flow and fractionation effect. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and local progression-free survival (LPFS). The EDIC–survival relationship was analyzed with consideration of clinical significant factors. Results: A total of 456 patients were eligible. The median EDIC values were 5.6 Gy (range, 2.1–12.2 Gy) and 6.3 Gy (2.1–11.6 Gy) for the low- and high-dose groups, respectively. The EDIC was significantly associated with OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.12, p = 0.005) and LPFS (HR = 1.09, p = 0.02) but PFS (HR = 1.05, p = 0.17) after adjustment for tumor dose, gross tumor volume and other factors. OS decreased with an increasing EDIC in a non-linear pattern: the two-year OS decreased first with a slope of 8%/Gy when the EDIC < 6 Gy, remained relatively unchanged when the EDIC was 6–8 Gy, and followed by a further reduction with a slope of 12%/Gy when the EDIC > 8 Gy. Conclusions: The EDIC is a significant independent risk factor for poor OS and LPFS in RTOG 0617 patients with stage III NSCLC, suggesting that radiation dose to circulating immune cells is critical for tumor control. Organ at risk for the immune system should be considered during RT plan

    Risk of subsequent primary cancers after carbon ion radiotherapy, photon radiotherapy, or surgery for localised prostate cancer: a propensity score-weighted, retrospective, cohort study

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    Background: Photon radiotherapy increases the risk of subsequent primary cancers. Carbon ion radiotherapy has a theoretically lower risk of inducing malignancy, but the risk of subsequent malignancies after carbon ion radiotherapy has not been analyzed in detail yet. We thus aimed to analyze subsequent primary cancers after carbon ion radiotherapy and to compare the incidence of subsequent primary cancers between patients who had received carbon ion radiotherapy for prostate cancer and a population-based cohort of patients treated with photon radiotherapy or surgery.Methods: We reviewed the records of patients who received carbon ion radiotherapy for prostate cancer between 1994 and 2012 at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan and performed multivariable analysis to estimate predictors of subsequent cancers after carbon ion radiotherapy. Then, using propensity score inverse probability weighting, we retrospectively compared the incidence of subsequent cancers in patients with prostate cancer treated with carbon beams to that of patients treated with photons or surgery from the Osaka Cancer Registry. For all treatment groups, eligible patients were of any age, had localized prostate cancer excluding patients with metastasis, node positive or T4 prostate cancer, prior or synchronous malignancy, prior radiation or chemotherapy, and those with ≤3 months of follow-up. Findings: Out of 1580 patients who received carbon radiotherapy for prostate cancer between June 27th, 1995 and July 10th, 2012, 1455 patients met the eligibility criteria. After a median follow-up of 7·9 years (IQR 5.9-10.3), there were 234 subsequent primary cancers in the carbon ion radiotherapy cohort. On multivariable analysis, age and smoking were associated with a higher risk of subsequent primary cancers. Out of 38,594 Osaka cancer registry patients with prostate cancer treated between January 1994 and December 2012, 1983 patients treated with photon radiotherapy and 5948 treated with surgery were included. With a maximum follow-up of 10 years, median follow-up durations were 7.9 (IQR 5.9-10), 5·7 (IQR 4.5-6.4) and 6·0 (IQR 5.0-8.6) years in the carbon radiotherapy, photon radiotherapy, and surgery cohorts, respectively. After propensity score weighting, carbon ion radiotherapy was associated with a lower risk of subsequent primary cancers than photon radiotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0·81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0·66-0·99), while photon radiotherapy was associated with a higher risk of subsequent primary cancers than surgery (HR 1·18; 95% CI 1·02-1·36). Compared to the general population, the carbon ion radiotherapy cohort did not show higher cancer risk in any sub-site. Bladder cancer risk, however, was higher in the photon radiotherapy cohort (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 3·34; 95% CI 2·16-4·51), but not in the surgery cohort (SIR 1·45; 95% CI 0·99-1·87). Interpretation:Acknowledging the limitations in this study, carbon ion radiotherapy appears to have a lower risk of subsequent primary cancers than photon radiotherapy for patients with prostate cancer. Although prospective evaluation with longer follow-up is warranted to support these results, our data suggest a unique advantage of carbon ion radiotherapy and could support a wider but still cost-conscious adoption of this treatment in patients with expected long-term survival or those with poor outcomes with conventional treatments.Funding: This work was supported by the Research Project for Heavy Ions at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    Long-term Follow-up on NRG Oncology RTOG 0915 (NCCTG N0927): A Randomized Phase 2 Study Comparing 2 Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Schedules for Medically Inoperable Patients With Stage I Peripheral Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

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    PURPOSE: To present long-term results of RTOG 0915/NCCTG N0927, a randomized lung stereotactic body radiation therapy trial of 34 Gy in 1 fraction versus 48 Gy in 4 fractions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This was a phase 2 multicenter study of patients with medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer with biopsy-proven peripheral T1 or T2 N0M0 tumors, with 1-year toxicity rates as the primary endpoint and selected failure and survival outcomes as secondary endpoints. The study opened in September 2009 and closed in March 2011. Final data were analyzed through May 17, 2018. RESULTS: Eighty-four of 94 patients accrued were eligible for analysis: 39 in arm 1 and 45 in arm 2. Median follow-up time was 4.0 years for all patients and 6.0 years for those alive at analysis. Rates of grade 3 and higher toxicity were 2.6% in arm 1 and 11.1% in arm 2. Median survival times (in years) for 34 Gy and 48 Gy were 4.1 versus 4.6, respectively. Five-year outcomes (95% confidence interval) for 34 Gy and 48 Gy were a primary tumor failure rate of 10.6% (3.3%-23.1%) versus 6.8% (1.7%-16.9%); overall survival of 29.6% (16.2%-44.4%) versus 41.1% (26.6%-55.1%); and progression-free survival of 19.1% (8.5%-33.0%) versus 33.3% (20.2%-47.0%). Distant failure as the sole failure or a component of first failure occurred in 6 patients (37.5%) in the 34 Gy arm and in 7 (41.2%) in the 48 Gy arm. CONCLUSIONS: No excess in late-appearing toxicity was seen in either arm. Primary tumor control rates at 5 years were similar by arm. A median survival time of 4 years for each arm suggests similar efficacy, pending any larger studies appropriately powered to detect survival differences

    Accurate Real Time Localization Tracking in A Clinical Environment using Bluetooth Low Energy and Deep Learning

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    Deep learning has started to revolutionize several different industries, and the applications of these methods in medicine are now becoming more commonplace. This study focuses on investigating the feasibility of tracking patients and clinical staff wearing Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) tags in a radiation oncology clinic using artificial neural networks (ANNs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The performance of these networks was compared to relative received signal strength indicator (RSSI) thresholding and triangulation. By utilizing temporal information, a combined CNN+ANN network was capable of correctly identifying the location of the BLE tag with an accuracy of 99.9%. It outperformed a CNN model (accuracy = 94%), a thresholding model employing majority voting (accuracy = 95%), and a triangulation classifier utilizing majority voting (accuracy = 95%). Future studies will seek to deploy this affordable real time location system in hospitals to improve clinical workflow, efficiency, and patient safety

    Long-Term Follow-Up on NRG Oncology RTOG 0915 (NCCTG n0927): A Randomized Phase 2 study Comparing 2 Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Schedules for Medically Inoperable Patients with Stage I Peripheral Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

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    Purpose/Objective(s): NRG Oncology RTOG 0915/NCCTG N0927 was a randomized lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) trial of 34 Gy in 1 fraction (arm 1) versus 48 Gy in 4 fractions (arm 2) designed to select the better of the 2 regimens by comparing them at 1 year (yr): first by rates of pre-specified protocol-specified adverse events (psAEs), then by primary tumor control for each arm. Thirty-four Gy emerged as the least toxic yet equally efficacious regimen. Herein, we update those results with long-term follow-up. Purpose/Objective(s): This phase II North American multicenter study of patients aged 18 yrs or older with medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer with biopsy-proven peripheral (≥2 cm from the central bronchial tree) T1 or T2, N0 (clinically node negative by positron emission tomography), M0 tumors was designed to detect 1-yr psAEs rates \u3e17% as primary endpoint. Primary tumor failure (PTF) (either infield or marginal failure) and local failure (either infield, marginal, or involved lobe failure) [with death without failure considered as a competing event]; overall survival (OS); disease-free survival (DFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were secondary endpoints, but the study was not designed for statistical comparisons of these outcomes. The study opened in September 2009 and closed in March 2011. Updated data were analyzed through November 14, 2016. Results: Ninety-four patients were accrued, with 86 eligible for analysis: 41 in arm 1 and 45 in arm 2, after 8 cases were excluded. Median follow-up time was 3.8 yrs for all patients, and 5.1 yrs for those alive at analysis. The grade 3 and higher treatment-related toxicity profile was unchanged since previous report, with specifically no new high grade chest wall or grade 5 events. Four of 48 Gy patients had subsequent grade 3 changes in spirometry since meeting the primary endpoint. Medians (in yrs) for 34 Gy and 48 Gy were: 4.1 vs. 4.0 for OS, and 2.6 vs. 2.8 for DFS, respectively. Five-yr outcomes as % (95% CI) for 34 Gy and 48 Gy were: PTF rate of 7.9 (2.0, 19.5) vs. 6.8 (1.7, 16.9); OS of 28.8 (15.4, 43.8) vs. 40.2 (24.9, 55.0); PFS of 19.1 (8.5, 33.0) vs. 31.8 (18.6, 45.9); and second primary rate of 15.5 (6.1, 28.9) vs. 13.3 (5.3, 25.1), respectively. Distant failure as the sole failure or a component of first failure was numerically higher in the 34 Gy arm (7 (46.7%)), but in the 48 Gy arm, rate of second primary development was higher (7 (43.8%)). Approximately 1/3 of patients\u27 causes of death were unknown, and another 1/3 was related to causes other than cancer or treatment. Conclusion: No excess in late-appearing toxicity was seen in either arm. Primary tumor control rates at 5 yrs were similar by arm. Median survivals of 4 yrs for each arm suggest similar efficacy pending any larger studies appropriately powered to detect survival differences

    Heavy Ions in Cancer Therapy

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    Quality of Life Analysis of a Radiation Dose-Escalation Study of Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0617 Randomized Clinical Trial

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    IMPORTANCE: A recent randomized radiation dose-escalation trial in unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] 0617) showed a lower survival rate in the high-dose radiation therapy (RT) arm (74 Gy) than in the low-dose arm (60 Gy) with concurrent chemotherapy. OBJECTIVE: The primary QOL hypothesis predicted a clinically meaningful decline in quality of life (QOL) via the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-Lung Cancer Subscale (LCS) in the high-dose RT arm at 3 months. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: The RTOG 0617 trial was a randomized phase 3 study (conducted from November 2007 to November 2011) in stage III NSCLC using a 2 × 2 factorial design and stratified by histology, positron emission tomography staging, performance status, and irradiation technique (3-dimensional conformal RT [3D-CRT] vs intensity-modulated RT [IMRT]). A total of 185 institutions in the United States and Canada took part. Of 424 eligible patients with stage III NSCLC randomized, 360 (85%) consented to QOL evaluation, of whom 313 (88%) completed baseline QOL assessments. INTERVENTION: Treatment with 74-Gy vs 60-Gy RT with concurrent and consolidation carboplatin/paclitaxel with or without cetuximab. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The QOL data were collected prospectively via FACT Trial Outcome Index (FACT-TOI), calculated as the sum of the following measures: Physical Well Being (PWB), Functional Well Being (FWB), and the LCS. Data are presented at baseline and 3 and 12 months via minimal clinically meaningful changes of 2 points or more for PWB, FWB, and LCS or 5 points or more for TOI. RESULTS: Of the 313 patients who completed baseline QOL assessments, 219 patients (70%) completed the 3-month QOL assessments, and 137 of the living patients (57%) completed the 12-month assessment. Patient demographics and baseline QOL scores were comparable between the 74-Gy and 60-Gy arms. Significantly more patients in the 74-Gy arm than in the 60-Gy arm had clinically meaningful decline in FACT-LCS at 3 months (45% vs 30%; P = .02). At 12 months, fewer patients who received IMRT (vs 3D-CRT) had clinically meaningful decline in FACT-LCS (21% vs 46%; P = .003). Baseline FACT-TOI was associated with overall survival in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Despite few differences in clinician-reported toxic effects between treatment arms, QOL analysis demonstrated a clinically meaningful decline in QOL in the 74-Gy arm at 3 months, confirming the primary QOL hypothesis. Baseline QOL was an independent prognostic factor for survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00533949
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