137 research outputs found

    FF-LINS: A Consistent Frame-to-Frame Solid-State-LiDAR-Inertial State Estimator

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    Most of the existing LiDAR-inertial navigation systems are based on frame-to-map registrations, leading to inconsistency in state estimation. The newest solid-state LiDAR with a non-repetitive scanning pattern makes it possible to achieve a consistent LiDAR-inertial estimator by employing a frame-to-frame data association. In this letter, we propose a robust and consistent frame-to-frame LiDAR-inertial navigation system (FF-LINS) for solid-state LiDARs. With the INS-centric LiDAR frame processing, the keyframe point-cloud map is built using the accumulated point clouds to construct the frame-to-frame data association. The LiDAR frame-to-frame and the inertial measurement unit (IMU) preintegration measurements are tightly integrated using the factor graph optimization, with online calibration of the LiDAR-IMU extrinsic and time-delay parameters. The experiments on the public and private datasets demonstrate that the proposed FF-LINS achieves superior accuracy and robustness than the state-of-the-art systems. Besides, the LiDAR-IMU extrinsic and time-delay parameters are estimated effectively, and the online calibration notably improves the pose accuracy. The proposed FF-LINS and the employed datasets are open-sourced on GitHub (https://github.com/i2Nav-WHU/FF-LINS)

    Insecticidal and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activity of Veratrum nigrum Alkaloidal Extract against the German Cockroach (Blattella germanica)

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    Background: Veratrum nigrum (Liliaceae) is perennial medicinal plant widely used to treat various conditions. To de­ter­mine its insecticidal properties against the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), several laboratory tests were car­ried out. Methods: A 4kg dry sample of V. nigrum root was purchased from the medicinal material market in Yunnan Province in 2015, China. In contact toxicity tests, V. nigrum alkaloidal extract was topically applied to the abdomen of cockroaches using a micro-applicator. In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests were performed using a modified Ellman method. Results: Veratrum nigrum alkaloidal extract was toxic to male adults and 4th nymphs cockroaches, with median lethal dose (LD50) values of 14.90µg/insect, 14.21µg/insect for adults and 41.45µg/insect, 39.01µg/insect for 4th nymphs after 24h and 48h exposure, respectively. There was a significant difference between adults and nymphs in terms of tolerance to V. nigrum alkaloidal extract. There was no significant difference in mortalities at 24h and 48h, the lethal effect of V. nigrum alkaloidal extract on German cockroach was quick. AChE activity tests showed that V. nigrum alkaloidal extract had an excellent inhibitory effect on AChE: inhibition in the 4th nymphs and male adults had 50% inhibiting concentra­tion (IC50) values of 3.56mg/ml and 5.78mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory effect of AChE activity was positively cor­related with inhibitory time (0–20min), at a concentration of 1mg/ml, inhibition of nymph and adult AChE activity had 50% inhibiting time (IT50) values of 8.34min and 16.75min, respectively. Conclusion: V. nigrum may be explored as a potential natural insecticide for control of the German cockroach

    Immunological Responses to Transgene-Modified Neural Stem Cells After Transplantation

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    Neural stem cell (NSC) therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for stroke. Researchers have frequently carried out genetic modification or gene editing of stem cells to improve survival or therapeutic function. However, NSC transplantation carries the risk of immune rejection, and genetic modification or gene-editing might further increase this risk. For instance, recent studies have reported on manipulating the stem cell genome and transplantation via the insertion of an exogenous gene derived from magnetotactic bacteria. However, whether transgene-modified stem cells are capable of inducing immunological reactions has not been explored. Although NSCs rarely express the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), they can still cause some immunological issues. To investigate whether transgene-modified NSCs aggravate immunological responses, we detected the changes in peripheral immune organs and intracerebral astrocytes, glial cells, and MHC-I and MHC-II molecules after the injection of GFP-labeled or mms6-GFP-labeled NSCs in a rat model. Xenogeneic human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T) cells were grafted as a positive control group. Our results indicated that xenogeneic cell transplantation resulted in a strong peripheral splenic response, increased astrocytes, enhanced microglial responses, and upregulation of MHC-I and MHC-II expression on the third day of transplantation. But they decreased obviously except Iba-1 positive cells and MHC-II expression. When injection of both mms6-GFP-labeled NSCs and GFP-labeled NSCs also induced similar responses as HEK-293T cells on the third days, but MHC-I and MHC-II expression decreased 3 weeks after transplantation. In addition, mms6 transgene-modified NSCs did not produce peripheral splenic response responses as well as astrocytes, microglial cells, MHC-I and MHC-II positive cells responses when compared with non-modified NSCs. The present study provides preliminary evidence that transgenic modification does not aggravate immunological responses in NSC transplantation

    CD133-Positive Cells Might Be Responsible for Efficient Proliferation of Human Meningioma Cells

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    Owing to lack of appropriate model systems, investigations of meningioma biology have come to a stop. In this study, we developed a comprehensive digestion method and defined a culture system. Using this method and system, primary meningioma cells in conditioned suspension medium and a hypoxic environment could be amplified in spheres and were passaged for more than ten generations. Meningioma sphere cells were positive for meningioma cell markers and negative for markers of neural cell types. Importantly, we found the cells expressed the stem cell marker, CD133, but not nestin. All of the tumor sphere cell populations showed a slower degree of cell proliferation than that of human glioma cells and fetal neural stem cells (NSCs). Further studies showed that the proliferative rate was positively correlated with CD133 expression. The higher the CD133 expression, the faster the cell proliferation. With the increase in cell generations, the cell proliferation rate gradually slowed down, and CD133 expression also decreased. Single CD133+ cells rather than CD133− cells could form spheres. Thus, the results above indicated that those cells expressing CD133 in spheres might be stem-like cells, which may be responsible for efficient amplification of human meningioma cells. Decreased expression of CD133 may lead to the failure of long-term passaging

    The microbiota continuum along the female reproductive tract and its relation to uterine-related diseases

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    Reports on bacteria detected in maternal fluids during pregnancy are typically associated with adverse consequences, and whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbial communities beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here we systematically sample the microbiota within the female reproductive tract in 110 women of reproductive age, and examine the nature of colonisation by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and cultivation. We find distinct microbial communities in cervical canal, uterus, fallopian tubes and peritoneal fluid, differing from that of the vagina. The results reflect a microbiota continuum along the female reproductive tract, indicative of a non-sterile environment. We also identify microbial taxa and potential functions that correlate with the menstrual cycle or are over-represented in subjects with adenomyosis or infertility due to endometriosis. The study provides insight into the nature of the vagino-uterine microbiome, and suggests that surveying the vaginal or cervical microbiota might be useful for detection of common diseases in the upper reproductive tract.Shenzhen Municipal Government of China [JCYJ20160229172757249, JCYJ20150601090833370]; Danish Strategic Research Council [2106-07-0021]; Ole Romer grant from Danish Natural Science Research Council; Solexa project [272-07-0196]SCI(E)ARTICLE
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