15 research outputs found

    Decoding the genetic relationship between Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes: potential risk variants and future direction for North Africa

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    IntroductionAlzheimer’s disease (AD) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are both age-associated diseases. Identification of shared genes could help develop early diagnosis and preventive strategies. Although genetic background plays a crucial role in these diseases, we noticed an underrepresentation tendency of North African populations in omics studies.Materials and methodsFirst, we conducted a comprehensive review of genes and pathways shared between T2D and AD through PubMed. Then, the function of the identified genes and variants was investigated using annotation tools including PolyPhen2, RegulomeDB, and miRdSNP. Pathways enrichment analyses were performed with g:Profiler and EnrichmentMap. Next, we analyzed variant distributions in 16 worldwide populations using PLINK2, R, and STRUCTURE software. Finally, we performed an inter-ethnic comparison based on the minor allele frequency of T2D-AD common variants.ResultsA total of 59 eligible papers were included in our study. We found 231 variants and 363 genes shared between T2D and AD. Variant annotation revealed six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with a high pathogenic score, three SNPs with regulatory effects on the brain, and six SNPs with potential effects on miRNA-binding sites. The miRNAs affected were implicated in T2D, insulin signaling pathways, and AD. Moreover, replicated genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to plasma protein binding, positive regulation of amyloid fibril deposition, microglia activation, and cholesterol metabolism. Multidimensional screening performed based on the 363 shared genes showed that main North African populations are clustered together and are divergent from other worldwide populations. Interestingly, our results showed that 49 SNP associated with T2D and AD were present in North African populations. Among them, 11 variants located in DNM3, CFH, PPARG, ROHA, AGER, CLU, BDNF1, CST9, and PLCG1 genes display significant differences in risk allele frequencies between North African and other populations.ConclusionOur study highlighted the complexity and the unique molecular architecture of North African populations regarding T2D-AD shared genes. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of T2D-AD shared genes and ethnicity-specific investigation studies for a better understanding of the link behind these diseases and to develop accurate diagnoses using personalized genetic biomarkers

    African Genomic Medicine Portal: A Web Portal for Biomedical Applications

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    Genomics data are currently being produced at unprecedented rates, resulting in increased knowledge discovery and submission to public data repositories. Despite these advances, genomic information on African-ancestry populations remains significantly low compared with European- and Asian-ancestry populations. This information is typically segmented across several different biomedical data repositories, which often lack sufficient fine-grained structure and annotation to account for the diversity of African populations, leading to many challenges related to the retrieval, representation and findability of such information. To overcome these challenges, we developed the African Genomic Medicine Portal (AGMP), a database that contains metadata on genomic medicine studies conducted on African-ancestry populations. The metadata is curated from two public databases related to genomic medicine, PharmGKB and DisGeNET. The metadata retrieved from these source databases were limited to genomic variants that were associated with disease aetiology or treatment in the context of African-ancestry populations. Over 2000 variants relevant to populations of African ancestry were retrieved. Subsequently, domain experts curated and annotated additional information associated with the studies that reported the variants, including geographical origin, ethnolinguistic group, level of association significance and other relevant study information, such as study design and sample size, where available. The AGMP functions as a dedicated resource through which to access African-specific information on genomics as applied to health research, through querying variants, genes, diseases and drugs. The portal and its corresponding technical documentation, implementation code and content are publicly available

    African Genomic Medicine Portal: A Web Portal for Biomedical Applications

    Get PDF
    Genomics data are currently being produced at unprecedented rates, resulting in increased knowledge discovery and submission to public data repositories. Despite these advances, genomic information on African-ancestry populations remains significantly low compared with European- and Asian-ancestry populations. This information is typically segmented across several different biomedical data repositories, which often lack sufficient fine-grained structure and annotation to account for the diversity of African populations, leading to many challenges related to the retrieval, representation and findability of such information. To overcome these challenges, we developed the African Genomic Medicine Portal (AGMP), a database that contains metadata on genomic medicine studies conducted on African-ancestry populations. The metadata is curated from two public databases related to genomic medicine, PharmGKB and DisGeNET. The metadata retrieved from these source databases were limited to genomic variants that were associated with disease aetiology or treatment in the context of African-ancestry populations. Over 2000 variants relevant to populations of African ancestry were retrieved. Subsequently, domain experts curated and annotated additional information associated with the studies that reported the variants, including geographical origin, ethnolinguistic group, level of association significance and other relevant study information, such as study design and sample size, where available. The AGMP functions as a dedicated resource through which to access African-specific information on genomics as applied to health research, through querying variants, genes, diseases and drugs. The portal and its corresponding technical documentation, implementation code and content are publicly available

    Mutation in POLR3K causes hypomyelinating leukodystrophy and abnormal ribosomal RNA regulation

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    International audienceObjective To identify the genetic cause of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy in 2 consanguineous families. Methods Homozygosity mapping combined with whole-exome sequencing of consanguineous families was performed. Mutation consequences were determined by studying the structural change of the protein and by the RNA analysis of patients' fibroblasts. Results We identified a biallelic mutation in a gene coding for a Pol III-specific subunit, POLR3K (c.121C>T/p.Arg41Trp), that cosegregates with the disease in 2 unrelated patients. Patients expressed neurologic and extraneurologic signs found in POLR3A-and POLR3B-related leu-kodystrophies with a peculiar severe digestive dysfunction. The mutation impaired the POLR3K-POLR3B interactions resulting in zebrafish in abnormal gut development. Functional studies in the 2 patients' fibroblasts revealed a severe decrease (60%-80%) in the expression of 5S and 7S ribosomal RNAs in comparison with control. Conclusions These analyses underlined the key role of ribosomal RNA regulation in the development and maintenance of the white matter and the cerebellum as already reported for diseases related to genes involved in transfer RNA or translation initiation factors

    Whole Exome Sequencing allows the identification of two novel groups of Xeroderma pigmentosum in Tunisia, XP-D and XP-E: Impact on molecular diagnosis

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    International audienceBACKGROUND: Skin cancers (SC) are complex diseases that develop from complex combinations of genetic and environmental risk factors. One of the most severe and rare genetic diseases predisposing to SC is the Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) syndrome.OBJECTIVES: First, to identify the genetic etiology of XP and to better classify affected patients. Second, to provide early molecular diagnosis for pre-symptomatic patient and finally to offer genetic counseling for related individuals.METHODS: Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) and Run Of Homozygosity (ROH) were performed for two patients belonging to two different multiplex consanguineous families. The identified mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and researched in ten Tunisian families including a total of 25 affected individuals previously suspected as having XP group V (XP-V) form. All patients had mild dermatological manifestations, absence of neurological abnormalities and late onset of skin tumors.RESULTS: Screening for functional variations showed the presence of the ERCC2 p.Arg683Gln in XP14KA-2 patient and a novel mutation, DDB2 p. (Lys381Argfs*2), in XP51-MAH-1 patient. Sanger sequencing and familial segregation showed that the ERCC2 mutation is present at a homozygous state in 10 affected patients belonging to 3 families. The second mutation in DDB2, is present at a homozygous state in 5 affected cases belonging to the same family. These two mutations are absent in the remaining 10 affected patients. The ERCC2 c.2048G > A mutation is present in a medium ROH region (class B) suggesting that it mostly arises from ancient relatedness within individuals. However, the c.1138delG DDB2 mutation is present in a large ROH region (class C) suggesting that it arises from recent relatedness.CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study that identifies XP-D and XP-E complementation groups in Tunisia. These two groups are very rare and under-diagnosed in the world and were not reported in North Africa

    Genetic characterization of suspected MODY patients in Tunisia by targeted next-generation sequencing

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    International audienceAIMS: Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is a monogenic form of diabetes with autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. The diagnosis of MODY and its subtypes is based on genetic testing. Our aim was investigating MODY by means of next-generation sequencing in the Tunisian population.METHODS: We performed a targeted sequencing of 27 genes known to cause monogenic diabetes in 11 phenotypically suspected Tunisian patients. We retained genetic variants passing filters of frequency in public databases as well as their probable effects on protein structures and functions evaluated by bioinformatics prediction tools.RESULTS: Five heterozygous variants were found in four patients. They include two mutations in HNF1A and GCK that are the causative genes of the two most prevalent MODY subtypes described in the literature. Other possible mutations, including novel frameshift and splice-site variants were identified in ABCC8 gene.CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to investigate the clinical application of targeted next-generation sequencing for the diagnosis of MODY in Africa. The combination of this approach with a filtering/prioritization strategy made a step towards the identification of MODY mutations in the Tunisian population

    Association of apolipoprotein A5 gene variants with metabolic syndrome in Tunisian population.

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    International audienceAIM OF THE STUDY : APOA5 has been linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS) or its traits in several populations. In North Africa, only the Moroccan population was investigated. Our aim is to assess the association between APOA5 gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to MetS and its components in the Tunisian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A total of 594 participants from the Tunisian population were genotyped for two polymorphisms rs3135506 and rs651821 located in APOA5 gene using KASPar technology. Statistical analyses were performed using R software. RESULTS : The SNP rs651821 increased the risk of MetS under the dominant model (OR=1.91 [1.17-3.12], P=0.008) whereas the variant rs3135506 was not associated with MetS. After stratification of the cohort following the sex, only the variant rs651821 showed a significant association with MetS among the women group. The influence of the geographic origin of the studied population on the genotype distribution of APOA5 variants showed that the variant rs651821 was significantly associated with MetS only for the Northern population. The association analyses of the variants rs651821 and rs3135506 with different quantitative traits of MetS showed a significant association only between the variant rs3135506 and triglycerides levels. CONCLUSION : This is the first study reporting the association of APOA5 gene variants with MetS in Tunisia. Our study emphasizes the role of APOA5 variants in the regulation of the triglycerides blood levels. Further studies are needed to confirm the clinical relevance of these associations and to better understand the physiopathology of the MetS

    Pharmacogenetic landscape of Metabolic Syndrome components drug response in Tunisia and comparison with worldwide populations

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    <div><p>Genetic variation is an important determinant affecting either drug response or susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Several studies have highlighted the importance of ethnicity in influencing drug response variability that should be considered during drug development. Our objective is to characterize the genetic variability of some pharmacogenes involved in the response to drugs used for the treatment of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in Tunisia and to compare our results to the worldwide populations. A set of 135 Tunisians was genotyped using the Affymetrix Chip 6.0 genotyping array. Variants located in 24 Very Important Pharmacogenes (VIP) involved in MetS drug response were extracted from the genotyping data. Analysis of variant distribution in Tunisian population compared to 20 worldwide populations publicly available was performed using R software packages. Common variants between Tunisians and the 20 investigated populations were extracted from genotyping data. Multidimensional screening showed that Tunisian population is clustered with North African and European populations. The greatest divergence was observed with the African and Asian population. In addition, we performed Inter-ethnic comparison based on the genotype frequencies of five VIP biomarkers. The genotype frequencies of the biomarkers rs3846662, rs1045642, rs7294 and rs12255372 located respectively in <i>HMGCR</i>, <i>ABCB1</i>, <i>VKORC1 and TCF7L2</i> are similar between Tunisian, Tuscan (TSI) and European (CEU). The genotype frequency of the variant rs776746 located in <i>CYP3A5</i> gene is similar between Tunisian and African populations and different from CEU and TSI. The present study shows that the genetic make up of the Tunisian population is relatively complex in regard to pharmacogenes and reflects previous historical events. It is important to consider this ethnic difference in drug prescription in order to optimize drug response to avoid serious adverse drug reactions. Taking into account similarities with other neighboring populations, our study has an impact not only on the Tunisian population but also on North African population which are underrepresented in pharmacogenomic studies.</p></div

    STRUCTURE analysis of the genetic relationship between 24 populations.

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    <p>K is the possible numbers of parental population clusters. One color represents one parental population into different color segments. Best K level was observed at K = 3, where a vertical the proportion of each ancestral component in a single individual is represented by a vertical bar divided into 3 colors. 601 markers study—displaying results for runs with highest likelihood out of 27 runs in each cluster K3 to 10. Black vertical lines identify the population boundaries. The height extent of each color within an individual’s color bar corresponds to the estimated membership of the individual in one of the clusters; each cluster is assigned a separate <b>color</b>. The bars with multiple colors can be interpreted as genetic admixture or as relative probabilities of belonging to the different clusters.</p
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